Langhorne A. “Tony” Motley was born 5 June 1938 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He is the former United States Ambassador to Brazil (1981–83) and Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs (1983–85). In this interview, he reflects on growing up in Brazil as the son of an American oil executive who died in an airplane crash when Motley was twelve. A graduate of The Citadel (1960), Motley discusses the hazing he and his classmates experienced and remembers that, “we made a pledge that we weren’t going to do that, and I think we held it up.” While in the Air Force, Motley was stationed at Feltwell in England, Walker Air Force Base in New Mexico, Albrook Air Force Base in Panama, Scott Air Force Base in Illinois, and Elmendorf Air Force Base in Alaska. He resigned from the Air Force in June of 1970 to accept a job in Alaska in real estate development. Subsequent interviews on June 4, 2012 and June 9, 2012 explore Motley’s diplomatic career as well as his ongoing relationship to The Citadel.
The former Charleston mayor discusses family storytelling. He considers himself and his mother's side of the family to be introverted. His father's side are talkative, "Irish" storytellers. Riley shares family lore he received as a child. These include impressions of his father and his political associates, including Senators James F. Byrnes and Fritz Hollings. He also shares family stories and impressions of memorable relatives, including his grandfather J. Edwin Schachte's involvement with the Knights of Columbus, his uncle Lawrence G. Riley's life in the merchant marine, and pranks with his uncle John E. Riley. Riley lore also ties the family to the Civil War through his great grandfather Henry Oliver, a Confederate veteran. After the Civil War, Oliver walked home from Richmond, Virginia. The interview concludes with Rileys childhood memories of World War Two.
Riley discusses his years in the South Carolina House of Representatives (1968-1974). During those years, Riley was part of a small group of young legislators known as the Young Turks, which attempted to pass progressive reforms but faced the opposition of conservative legislators lead by the long-time serving Speaker of the House, Solomon Blatt Sr. Riley discusses his 1968 campaign and the unsuccessful runs of James Clyburn and Herbert Fielding. The interview concludes with Riley reflecting on his wife Charlotte's role and presence in his political career.
Erin McKee was born in Brooklyn, New York. Right after college, Mckee started her career as a flight attendant with National Airlines. When this company went bankrupt she joined Tower Air. In this interview, Mckee recalls some of the most dangerous, most difficult, and most satisfying moments she experienced working on international flights. In the ‘80s when she started working with the airline industry, flight attendants were expected to look attractive, they have to be slim, have their nails done, and their her hair up. It took time and work to change the requirements for applicants to meet the real focus of the position ‘the main reason that a flight attendant is on the airplane is if there's an emergency, to get you out of that airplane safely. It's not to look good. It's not to serve you meals really. You're there by law, federal regulations, to get people out of a plane in a certain amount of time if there's an emergency." At the end of '80s early '90s McKee and her coworkers organized a union to demand better regulations regarding the scheduling and number of hours they were forced to work. She became the secretary/treasurer of her union and was part of the negotiating committee. Because of her experience, she went to Washington, D. C. to testify before a legislative subcommittee about duty time legislation. Mckee moved to Charleston in 1996 and around 1998 Tower Air closed and she was out of work. She thought that her vast experience with unions would help her to find a job quickly but her background was not seen as an asset in a right to work state. She finally started working with American Income Life Insurance and then with Electrical Workers' Building Trades Local IBEW776. In 2013 she became the President of the State Labor Council (AFL- CIO).
Carol Tempel was born in Chicago, Illinois in 1941 to first generation Polish and German- Czechoslovakian parents. Her father was a Roman Catholic Democrat and her mother a Missouri Synod Lutheran Republican. She credits her parents' experiences as the foundation for her understanding of civil rights; " I think those experiences are really the thing that helped me understand what the civil-rights movement was all about, what discrimination was all about, what prejudice was all about, because it was founded on knowing people as people." Her father encouraged her to attend college and pursue a career in science even when in 1963 it was an uncommon career choice for a woman. She graduated from Augustana College, majoring in Biology and Secondary Education. Later she pursued a master's degree in Biology and completed her PhD in Educational Leadership. In the interview, Tempel tells about the times when she was denied employment despite her qualifications because of her gender. In 1978, Tempel moved with her husband, George Tempel, and children from Kansas to Charleston. Tempel remembers feeling she was "an anomaly" among the other women. She joined the League of Women Voters and soon was deeply involved in the Equal Rights Movement. She tells about the efforts to reform the legislation in South Carolina, the criticism she received in her own community because of her activism, and finally the frustration when despite all the hard work in 1982 the legislation did not pass. Tempel never stopped working in the community; from ‘82 to ‘88 she served as a chair of the James Island Constituent School Board and was the owner of a small business. In '88, she was hired by Charleston County Schools as curriculum specialist and she worked with the school district in many different capacities until her retirement. She is the president of the American Association of University Women of South Carolina. In the interview, Tempel reflects about the motivations behind her activism, her biggest accomplishments, and what means for her to be a feminist and a southern woman.
Charleston?s longest-serving mayor discusses his experiences as an undergraduate at The Citadel (1960-1964). Prompted by a yearbook photo, Riley shares memories of his classmates, including a company commander with a proclivity for pranks involving wildlife. Riley also reflects on Charleston's Civil War Centennial events, which were part of a year-long national commemoration. Cadets re-enacted the December 1861 firing on the federal supply ship, the Star of the West, which preceded by four months the attack on Fort Sumter that marked the start of the Civil War. Riley recalls his cousin Steve Schachte firing a model cannon at a Star of the West replica from the roof of the family home on Charleston's Battery. Riley also describes his relationship to Thomas Nugent ("The Boo") Courvoisie, a beloved Citadel administrator. A trip to New Orleans as a member of the Summerall Guard during Riley's senior year was especially memorable. He additionally reflects on his early work experiences, including assisting his father in his insurance business and an internship in Congressman Mendel Rivers's office in Washington, DC. Riley concludes with some reflections on the influence of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr. on his values.
Susan K. Dunn (1951) was born in Murray, Kentucky. Her mother was a homemaker and her father, a World War II veteran, was a Methodist Church minister who was very active in the Civil Rights movement. Dunn attended Duke University from 1968 to 1972, and her whole college experience was deeply impacted by the anti-war movement. In this interview, Dunn remembers her days as a student, protesting in the Duke Campus, and marching to DC. After college she decided to become an attorney and attended the University Of North Carolina School Of Law in Chapel Hill. Although it was a predominately male environment she did not face discrimination or problems for being a woman. It was later, when she was looking for a job that she confronted more barriers related not only to her gender but also to the fact that she lacked family connections. After graduation she moved with her husband to Charleston and worked for a small local law firm for a while. Later, she opened her own practice focusing mainly in family law. In 1993, Dunn began litigating in a high profile case known as Ferguson et al V. City of Charleston et all which lasted for more than a decade and was decided by the United States Supreme Court. "It involved a legal challenge to a policy that was basically created by the Charleston City Police and the Medical University. It was a policy that dealt with drug-testing pregnant women and using the criminal procedure to force them into treatment or to arrest them." The Supreme Court held that the policy was unconstitutional because it violated the Fourth Amendment. During all the years living and practicing law in Charleston Dunn has been involved in many causes directly related to protect and advance women's rights. Dunn has devoted her time and energy to many organizations, such as NOW (National Organization of Women), The South Carolina Women Lawyers' Association, and the City of Charleston Women Association. However, she affirms that "probably the place where I've affected more women is representing them in divorces and not charging them an arm and a leg and, you know, trying to, in one way that I could, help them get through that process with their dignity intact".In addition, Dunn worked as a lay minister at the Circular Church from 1999 to 2009. She explains that her church community is very important for her. Finally, Dunn reflects about her life as a mother and professional, and about what it means to her to be a feminist and a southern woman.
Charles Moore, a member and business manager of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) Local 776, was born in Florence, South Carolina, on July 19th, 1961. Soon after, his family moved to the Isle of Palms, where he spent his youth. Directly after graduating from high school, Moore joined the Marine Corps and served from 1979 to 1983. He spent most of his service time overseas, first in Japan and later in Korea. After completing his years of service at the age of twenty, Moore attended Embry-Riddle College in Daytona, Florida, aspiring to become a helicopter pilot. However, he returned to South Carolina before finishing his training and, needing a steady job, decided pursue a civilian job and continued on to join the local union. He explains that transitioning from military life to the union was not difficult, as both systems provided similar structure and order. Moore talks about IBEW, the union which represents electricians and workers of the communication and broadcasting industries, and describes its role in negotiating with contractors and ensuring benefits for the workers. His pride in his work with the union, in his trade, and in the Charleston-based projects on which he has participated is evident. He says proudly, “I can walk around here and see every building I worked in. I’m a part of the community. I love being a part of the community. My children get tired of it because every time we ride around, [I say], ‘Yeah, I built that. I built that.’”
"Herbert Lee Frazier was born at the Charleston Naval Base Hospital. The son of a Navy cook, Herbert grew up wandering King Street, enjoying cartoons, and maturing under the love and support of his close-knit family. Frazier also describes his youth and the neighborhood he grew up in, including the damage it suffered from Hurricane Hugo and the following gentrification. Frazier attended The University of South Carolina, majoring in journalism. Although he gravitated towards an advertising career, he found himself working as an intern at The Post and Courier in a newly integrated news room. Frazier notes that his career in journalism allowed him to “follow his curiosity.” Frazier went on to work at papers such as The State Newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, The Times-Picayune in New Orleans, Louisiana, The Dallas Times-Herald, in Dallas, Texas, and The Charlotte Observer in Charlotte, North Carolina. In 1990, he was named the journalist of the year by the South Carolina Press Association in recognition of his work with the South Carolina Association of Black Journalists. Frazier also recalls such experiences as teaching at Rhodes University in South Africa, participating in journalism organizations, and leading training sessions in developing countries with the State Department. In the interview, Frazier reflects on the ethics, integrity, and technological advancements in journalism . He also talks about the challenges he faced as an African American journalist and remembers some of the most interesting stories he wrote. "
Norma Hoffman-Davis (1940) was born and lived in Charleston until she left for college in 1957. Hoffman's parents were Ellen Wiley, a school teacher, and Joseph Irvin Hoffman a prominent African American physician who practiced in Charleston until he was in his eighties. In this interview, Hoffman-Davis reflects about growing up in Charleston peninsula, in a time when black and whites lived in the same neighborhoods but all institutions were segregated. She attended a catholic school for blacks, Immaculate Conception, and her family worshiped at St Peter's Catholic Church. Hoffman- Davis remembers the stories of her father, a black doctor, practicing in downtown Charleston and rural Johns Island. She tells about the health care institutions available for black people when she was a child, Cannon Street Hospital and the black section of Roper Hospital and also remembers her father's colleagues. Hoffman-Davis reflects about the mixed results that desegregation brought to the black community in terms of the access to healthcare services, as well as how changes in the healthcare industry have negatively impacted the doctor- patient relationship. Hofmann and her husband Mr. Leonard Davis lived in Detroit Michigan for thirty-eight years. After retirement they move back to the Lowcountry and reside in the house in which her parents used to live.
Born in Newberry, South Carolina on August 21, 1933, Marlene O'Bryant-Seabrook calls herself "an educator who quilts". In 1975, Seabrook became the first African American and second women to join The Citadel as full time faculty and in 2009 she was one of the forty-four fiber artists chosen to participate in an exhibition to honor president Obama's first inauguration. Her quilt entitled "They Paved the Way" and many others she has created are featured in national and international publications and exhibits. A third generation educator, in this interview, she asserts that growing up among teachers left a indelible mark on her which guided her career choices and shaped her attitude towards life's challenges. "If I'm prepared to do something, then the rest of it does not make any difference. It never occurred to me that my being black or female should have stopped me from doing something." Seabrook attended Avery Normal Institute and then pursued higher education at South Carolina State, The Citadel, and finally the University of South Carolina where she completed her Ph.D. During her tenure at The Citadel, she was treated with respect. However,she taught mostly graduate students and only after a year of employment she was allowed to work with cadets, which she did in a very limited fashion. After leaving The Citadel in 1980, she returned to Charleston County Public School System where she worked until she retired "from employment but not from work."
Riley discusses his close ties to Hillary and Bill Clinton. Riley discusses meeting and supporting Bill Clinton during his presidential campaign. Clinton returned the favor and assisted Riley to keep the federal courthouse downtown. Riley also discusses his discovery and enthusiasm for Barack Obama. Riley explains his support for Obama over Hillary Clinton in 2008. He asserts that he has maintained a positive relationship to the Clintons despite opposing the administration's decision to close the Charleston Navy Base. He acknowledges that the campaign to keep the base open distracted him from his campaign for governor in 1994.
The former Charleston mayor discusses the impact of Hurricane Hugo (1989) on the region. He spotlights the emotional toll that it took on area residents and rejects suggestions that the storm benefited Charleston. Hugo elevated Riley's public profile, but he declined to run in the 1990 governor's race. The recovery led to tensions with Federal Emergency Management Authority and Republican officials. Riley expressed gratitude for Senator Ernest Hollings' outspoken criticisms of FEMA. Riley observes that FEMA is more proactive and professional as a result of their failures in 1989.
Riley describes his close relationship with the Carter administration. He discusses receiving a surprise Sunday evening phone call from President Carter and the president's visit to Charleston. Riley also explains how his close ties to the administration aided in the annexation of the Citadel mall into the city of Charleston in 1980.
Anthony Wright, renowned locally as "Tony the Peanut Man" was born in Savannah, Georgia on December 12, 1952. He grew up in the segregated Maryville community with his mother and five siblings. He attended Wallace High School and following school integration he went to Moultrie High. He was suspended for a year because he fought with a Caucasian student. He decided to quit school and instead earn his GED. In 1973 enlisted in the United States Army. After his service, Wright was employed by Gulfstream Aerospace in Savannah, and Lockheed in Charleston. When Lockheed closed, Wright struggled to get a good paying job. Mr. Marion Howard encouraged him to try selling peanuts in the Charleston market. Reluctantly, he decided to give it a try. At the beginning he was shy and other sellers in the market urged him to "be more like Mr. Ben," who was old and beloved peanut seller. Wright created a song and dance that helped him to increase sales. Wright sang, "I got some boiled and I got some toasted, got some stewed and I got some roasted. Oh, yeah, peanut man, uh-huh, catch him if you can because I got the right one baby, uh-huh." Wright's friendly and personable style made him successful and lead to appearances on television and a film. Moreover, his attitude and community involvement earned him the love and recognition of his fellow Charlestonians. Wright's entrepreneur spirit took him to write a comic book, Peanut Man. He used it as a tool to persuade children to follow their dreams. He also looked for ways to expand his business. In the interview he describes his struggles as an African-American vendor to be allowed to sell peanuts at The Citadel, Joe Riley Stadium, and the Daniel Island stadium and also the challenges he experienced when a fire destroyed his business and when a deal to sell can peanuts ended badly. In the interview he asserts being grateful for his life experiences and looking at the future with enthusiasm, "my goal is to be the number one peanut man in the world ... I just want to leave something behind that people can appreciate."
Lutheran Pastor Thulisiwe "Thulie" Beresford was born in Vryheid, South Africa on February 2, 1962. The third of seven children, she grew up in a devoted Lutheran family under the racist system of the apartheid. At age of nine, Beresford and one of her brothers were sent to Swaziland to live with their maternal grandmother and continue their education. Beresford excelled in math and science and in 1984 she graduated with a Bachelor Degree in Biology and a concurrent Diploma in Education. She taught for two years in South Africa and after receiving a scholarship moved to the United States to study at Ohio University in Athens where she earned a Master Degree in Biology. She went back to South Africa for two years and returned to USA to attend the seminary. In this interview, Beresford explains the policies of racial segregation imposed for the apartheid and how they impacted the life of her family and community. She also recalls episodes of violence, persecution, and repression she witnessed when growing up. Beresford also describes her experiences as a South African immigrant in USA. Finally, she tells about her call to become a Lutheran minister and reflects about balancing her roles as a pastor, mother, and wife.
Elmire Raven was born in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1952 and moved to South Carolina in 1989. Since 1991 she has served as the Executive Director of My Sister's House, Inc., a nonprofit organization that provides services to domestic violence victims in the Lowcountry area. In this interview, Raven recounts her upbringing, her early awareness of discrimination and her work with the South Carolina Coalition Against Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault. She also reflects about motherhood, social justice, and what it means for her to be a feminist and a southern woman.
This panel brought together for the first time in the City of Charleston a group of Jewish Cadets who shared their memories in a public forum (September 29, 2013). The program was possible thanks to the collaboration between the Jewish Studies Program at The College of Charleston and The Citadel. Martin Perlmutter introduced the program and Dr. Sam Hines introduced the moderator, Dr. Joelle Neulander. The event was dedicated to the memory of Maurice Fox, Citadel Class 1953. The panelists recall their experiences as Jewish cadets at The Citadel and reflect on how those experiences shaped their lives when they left the institution. All together the panelists experience span over seven decades. They provide a glimpse into the history of The Citadel from the WWII years to the present. The panelist include, Bernard Warshaw, Class of 1942, Bernard Solomon, Class of 1947, Les Bergen, Class of 1969, Steve Josias, Class of 1970, Alan Reyner, Class of 1972 and Jonathan Rosen, Class of 2014.
In this interview, Henry Rittenberg, a Citadel Graduate Class 1938, remembers his experiences as a Jewish cadet. At this time, about five hundred young men were part of the Corps of Cadets but only ten or twelve of them were Jewish. Catholics and Protestants were able to express their faith on campus, but Jewish cadets did not have that privilege. There were no organized Jewish services, a rabbi never visited the campus, and Jewish cadets had to request permission to leave for the High Holy Days. Moreover, The Citadel did not offer accommodations for the Jewish cadets to have kosher food or keep the Shabbat. However, Rittenberg reflects that these kind of religious issues were not very concerning among his peers, commenting they were not ignored but rather they were “under the radar”. In the interview, Rittenberg names other Jewish cadets that attended The Citadel in the 1930s and early 40s. Finally, Rittenberg tells about his participation on ad hoc committees for the Board of Visitors during the 1990s. In that role, he participated in important discussions such as the admission of women to the Corps and the filming of the movie Lords of Discipline based on Pat Conroy’s book of the same name.
Rhonda Jones (1970) is a sanitation worker for the City of Charleston, South Carolina. Having grown up in Brooklyn, New York; Rhonda moved south as a teenager to care for her ailing grandparents. A self-described outspoken and aggressive "Northerner," Jones had trouble assimilating into the slowness of life in the Lowcountry. In this interview, she recalls her life as a teenager displaced in Charleston and her efforts to provide for her children. In 2000 Jones applied for employment with the City of Charleston and became one of the first women that worked in sanitation as collector. In a traditionally male dominated environment she faced multiple challenges that included sexual harassment due both being a women and being a lesbian. Furthermore, Jones articulate the struggles that all sanitation workers, regardless their gender, face in their battle for better working conditions and the right to organize a union. At the time of the interview Jones was very involved with Local 1199, an organizing body fighting for the formation of a sanitation workers' union.
Bill Carson was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in October of 1976, and when he was ten years old his family relocated to James Island, South Carolina. It was around this time that Carson become interested in playing guitar. Carson talks about his formative years, the music that inspired him, and the people who supported him. He reminices how the Jump Little Children’s band members trained and nurtured him and describes them as being “like big brothers” to him and many other young local musicians. Despite participation in a band during his senior year of high school, Carson did not have plans to pursue a music career, and enrolled at the College of Charleston to study philosophy and art. After graduation, Carson began work in a glass shop, but continued playing in different bands in his free time. He remembers his first show, an opening for the band The Groovy Cools which drew a laughably small audience, and his first serious show with a band called Bud Collins. Carson recalls some of his best experiences playing in an ensemble, especially his participation in the Groundhog Concert Day at the Halsey Institute, which brought many of his favorite local musicians together. When asked whether he thought Charleston had a special sound, he stated that he considered Charleston to be special due to its sense of community. Carson recalls the instrumental trio he formed with Ron Wiltrout and Nathan Koci, known as The Opposite of Train, and his 2011 project to document indigenous music on Johns Island. Today, Carson is known for a vast career that includes writing, recording, and performing music, as well as for his collaborative projects and commissioned productions. He also finds time to be a full time elementary school teacher in his community.
"Longshoreman and civil rights unionist Leonard Riley, Jr. was born on August 27th, 1952, in Charleston, South Carolina. A lifelong resident of West Ashley, Riley’s family owned several acres of land which they farmed. To supplement the income from farming, his father worked seasonal jobs to be able to provide for his five children. It was in these seasonal jobs that Leonard Riley, Sr., became the first family member to work the waterfront. Later, his sons, Leonard and Kenneth, followed in his footsteps and would later become union leaders at the ILA local 1422. Riley relays his own introduction to longshoring, describing how he began at the age of eighteen, during the summer before his first year of college. His first day at work left an indelible memory. Riley recalls, ""Yeah, that was—that first day was unbelievable. I thought I was going to die, literally, cramping—all the bottoms of your feet cramping. I'll never forget that day: hands chafed out by getting blisters on the hands. But these guys were used to it, so it didn't bother them. They dragged me through that day."" After beginning his studies at the College of Charleston the following fall, Riley worked at the docks each summer. Though he earned a bachelor’s degree in Biology, after graduation Riley realized he truly enjoyed his job at the port. In addition to providing a good income, the job helped him to emerge as a young leader among his co-workers. Reflecting on years past, Riley stresses how drastically the maritime industry has changed due to automatization and stresses the union's crucial role in protecting the workers in a changing landscape. Amongst his memories, the 2002 strike against Nordana shipping stands out. Riley tells of the national and international attention- and international assistance- the conflict generated. He describes how the clash was resolved with the help and solidarity of Spanish dockworkers who forced the company to negotiate. Riley concludes and explains that longshoring has historically been a black industry that can be traced through the years back to slavery."
Charleston's long-serving mayor (1975-2016) discusses the transition from his undergraduate experience at The Citadel (BA 1964) to law school at the University of South Carolina (JD 1967). Hearing loss disqualified Riley for the draft and his pursuit of military service. Riley discusses his social life as a student in Columbia and his August 1966 marriage to Charlotte Douglas deLoach of Camden. Riley describes attending law school with very few women and Jasper Cureton, the first African American to be admitted to the law school since Reconstruction. He also discusses his political activities during law school and internships in the state house, as well as with the law firm of Boyd, Bruton, Knowlton, and Tate. The interview concludes with Riley's memories of a summer 1964 tour of Europe, during which he crossed paths with his future wife, Charlotte.
Riley describes meeting his father's politically-connected friends, including Congressman Mendel Rivers, and Senator and Governors James F. Byrnes, and Fritz Hollings. All close associates of his father. He also recounts his efforts to recruit Ken Burns to support the International African American Museum. Riley compares his father's and J.C. Long's careers in real estate development and civic affairs in Charleston and reveals that his father once considered running for mayor. Riley also explains the problems Charleston faced in the last years of the administration of mayor J. Palmer Gaillard Jr. Riley describes having Citadel President General Mark Clark visit the family home. Riley explains his decision to attend The Citadel and recounts his first year.
The former mayor discusses his love of baseball, a passion he shared with his grandfather who brought him to many Charleston Rebels games. Riley describes seeing Hank Aaron play in the game that broke the color line in Charleston. He later met Aaron as an adult. He explains why he is a Dodgers fan and remembers long lost baseball cards. Riley discusses being senior class president of Bishop England High School. Riley reflects on discovering his hearing impairment as a child and his father's hope for treatment. He eventually decided to purchase hearing aids in anticipation of starting a law practice. He realized he would need help to hear in court. The interview concludes with reminiscences of youth dances and hijinks.
The longtime mayor of Charleston discusses his perceptions of class differences in the city of his youth. He discusses parochial school and his family's summer rituals during their time at the beach on Sullivan's Island. Riley reflects on the African American servants - Lucy McBride, Estelle Fickling, and Ben Frasier - who worked for the Riley family during his childhood. Riley offers fond memories of his Cathedral school teacher, Dot Gnann. He concludes with a discussion of neighborhood life around Tradd Street.
Riley discusses his successful campaign for Mayor of Charleston in 1975. Charleston's long-serving mayor, J. Palmer Gaillard had resigned in April 1975 to accept President Ford's nomination to serve as Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Reserve Affairs. State Representative Robert R. Woods endorsed Riley after considering his own bid for the mayor's office. Riley also discusses transitioning from state to municipal politics and asserts that he had only intended to serve one term. Rileys involvement in Charles "Pug" Ravenel's unsuccessful gubernatorial run the previous year introduced him to David Rawle, a New York-based media consultant. Rawle agreed to work on the Riley campaign and remained among the mayor's closest associates over the course of his forty years in office. Riley also shares his memories of businessman and civil rights leader Esau Jenkins as well as his first serious political opponent, Nancy Hawk. He concludes with reflections on his family's involvement in the campaign.
The Mayor of Charleston discusses the Making Cities Livable International Conference in Charleston in February 2000. He emphasizes the importance of farmers and farmers' markets in Charleston. Riley explains the implementation of an urban growth boundary on John?s Island, which prevents any urban or suburban type developments beyond the boundary. Riley suggests that the urban growth boundary protects farmers from the infringement of developers.
Robert “Rabbit” Lockwood grew up on the South Battery in Charleston, South Carolina. In his interview, Lockwood describes his long and rich family history, which dates back to the earliest Europeans in South Carolina, including two family members who were blockade runners for the Confederacy during the Civil War. Lockwood’s family tradition of seafarers includes his grandfather and great-uncle who were harbor pilots in Charleston. During his early years, he attended Gaud School for Boys and Charleston High before majoring in Civil Engineering at The Citadel. After graduation, Lockwood became an apprentice harbor pilot, working at the Charleston Harbor until he retired at the age of seventy. In his reflections, Lockwood considers himself lucky to have been able to keep this job and avoid the fate of many of his classmates, who served in Vietnam. He also shares some of his more memorable experiences as a harbor pilot.
The former mayor of Charleston reflects on the first seven months of his retirement and indicates that he is satisfied with the decision not to seek re-election. He also comments on recent protests in cities across the country regarding the use of excessive force by police departments. The bulk of the interview focuses on the events related to Hurricane Hugo in September 1989 and his leadership of the recovery efforts. He discusses the challenge of alerting residents to the coming danger and the need to evacuate without triggering panic. He remembers the evening of the storm, hunkered down in City Hall with key staff. Riley stressed to Police Chief Reuben Greenberg that there should be no looting in the aftermath of the storm. He also discusses key events during the recovery. He concludes with memories of his only Oval Office meeting with President Ronald Reagan, who showed little interest in the discussion of low income housing.
Riley discusses his efforts at revitalizing downtown through the development of the Charleston Place hotel and Waterfront Park. He faced strong opposition to Charleston Place (originally Charleston Center) from preservationists and local merchants, including Maier Hyman. One opponent nearly landed a blow at the conclusion of a city council meeting. Riley also describes the negotiations that took place to acquire properties between Meeting and King Streets and to relocate tenants, including the Washington Light Infantry. The city received critical financial support for King St. revitalization from the US Economic Development Association and the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
The former mayor of Charleston discusses the troubled origins of the Spoleto Festival - Charleston's performing arts festival that began in 1977. The Charleston events are the US counterpart to the "Festival of Two Worlds" in Spoleto, Italy. Riley recounts the early financial and leadership struggles that led to the departure of festival chairman, Hugh Lane. He also discusses his working relationship with Spoleto's founder, the Italian composer Gian Carlo Menotti. During an especially lean year, Riley provided personal funds to keep the festival afloat. Riley also recalls taking some pride in his nickname "Little Black Joe" or "LBJ." Detractors dubbed him LBJ to suggest that he was pandering to the African American community for votes. He concludes with some reflections on police reform early in his tenure. Police Chief John Conroy worked to rid the police force of "thumpers," or those officers prone to violence.
Charleston's long-time mayor discusses policing, comparing chiefs Reuben Greenberg (1982-2005) and his successor, Gregory G. Mullen (2006-present). Riley reflects on the physical and mental health issues that led to Greenberg's retirement. He also recounts the racially charged fights that marred the Sertoma Classic football games in 1977. Riley offers remembrances of civil rights leader Septima P. Clark.
Gerald G. Mishoe was born in Conway, South Carolina in 1949. He was the son of Conway firefighter Julian Grant Mishoe, who sparked Gerald Mishoe’s love of firefighting. He spent much of his childhood with his father at the firehouse and watching him fight fires. Mishoe moved to Charleston, South Carolina in 1964. After graduating from high school he joined the St. Andrews Parish fire department to work with his father. After retiring and since the death of nine Charleston firefighters at the Sofa Superstore in 2007, Mishoe has been working with the Lowcountry Firefighter Support Team, which helps firefighters cope with the emotional burden associated with their profession. The team has supported nearly six thousand firefighters and their family members. In the interview, Mishoe tells about fires that stand out in his memory, the occasions he felt his life was in danger, and the changes he has witnessed over decades in the firefighting practice. He explains advances in technology have driven some changes, but others have been driven by tragedies, such us the Sofa Super Store fire in Charleston. He details things that went wrong during the fatal 2007 store fire. He states that a thorough evaluation of those failures has lead to improvements in safety protocols, accountability, equipment, and training. Mishoe also reflects on his journey learning to acknowledge his feelings and the effects of untreated trauma on himself and his family. He states that the ‘machismo’ common among first responders constitutes a huge risk for them. He asserts the importance of the work that Lowcountry Firefighter Support Team is doing, helping firefighters to stay in the job and increasing the quality of life. Mishoe’s son carries on the family tradition as a Charleston firefighter.
Jacquelyn Elaine Venning was born in Charleston, South Carolina, where she spent most of her life. Venning describes being raised in a Christian family and her experience in private schools, including Sacred Heart Catholic School and Bishop England, where she was educated until eleventh grade. Venning graduated from Burke High School in 1983. Venning recalls her first job as a shampoo girl, which she got in sixth grade and continued to work at through her schooling. After high school, Venning relates how she fell in love and got married. Her husband then joined the military, which relocated them around the world. Venning describes her experience living internationally in Germany, and in Texas and Georgia before returning to Charleston in 1992. Since then, she has been working with Aramark at The Citadel, first serving in the Mess Hall and later serving as a supervisor in the Daniel Library Java City. In her interview, Venning recalls her apprehension of working in The Citadel’s male-only environment. But she states that her fears quickly dissipated and describes the cadets as having always been gentle and respectful with her and her job enjoyable. Venning recounts the many institutional changes she has experienced during her than twenty-plus years working at The Citadel, including the deeply controversial admission of Sharon Faulkner to the school and later the full inclusion of women to the Corps. Venning concludes with how the food industry has changed over the years and the attempts to unionize The Citadel food workers.
Volante de un evento multicultural en James Island County Park organizado por West Ashley High School el 4 de mayo, 2003. / Flyer of a Multicultural Event in the James Island County Park organized by West Ashley High School on May 4, 2003.
Fotografía en color de Juana Torres y sus hijos con una quinceañera en la iglesia Blessed Sacrament. / Color photograph of Juana Torres and her sons with a quinceañera at Blessed Sacrament Catholic Church.
In this two-page handwritten letter C.C. Tseng discusses his concern for Laura Bragg's illness, travel plans, and plan to go to Norwich University, he received check from Miss Richardson, and signed letter "I-Men."
Fotografía en color de tres hombres vestidos como los reyes magos hablando con tres niños. El evento fue organizado por Tri- County Hispanic American Association. / Color photograph of three man dressed as the Three Wise Man talking with three children. The event was organized by the Tri- County Hispanic American Association.
Adrian Williams (1970) was born and raised in Charleston, SC. She was among the first female sanitation workers with the City of Charleston. In this interview, Williams recalls her early days growing up in Charleston and Johns Island and asserts that being a sexual abuse survivor made her a strong person who fights for her rights and who understands the sufferings of others. When asked about her source of strength, she affirms that becoming a mother when she was a teenager made her resolute about building a better life for herself and her child. She is particularly grateful for three women that provided support and inspired her: her aunt, her psychotherapist, and an English teacher. After a life crisis, Williams started working as a bus driver with the City of Charleston and later she moved to the sanitation department. She liked it at first. However, soon she discovered the problems that plagued her job which included abusive managers, sexism and sexual harassment, as well as, safety hazards related to the lack of appropriate training and equipment. Williams talks about her experiences as a union organizer, the barriers to engage more workers in the process, and the development of more effective strategies to negotiate with the authorities. This interview brings light to the efforts of the Local 1199C to be recognized by the City of Charleston in 2009.
Fotografía en color del grupo de danza Colombia Nuestra Patria en el Festival Internacional de MUSC. Cuatro mujeres y dos hombres van entrando al escenario. El evento fue organizado por el Servicio Estudiantes Internacionales de MUSC. Marcela Escobar Gomez, tercera desde la izquierda, fundó el grupo en 1996. / Color photograph of the Colombian Dance Group, Colombia Nuestra Patria, at the MUSC International Festival. Four women and two men are entering the stage. The event was organized by the MUSC International Students Service. Marcela Escobar Gomez, third from left, founded the group in 1996.
Volante de Charleston Dorchester Community Mental Health Center anunciando servicios terapéuticos bilingües disponibles para familias con niños pequeños en Johns Island, Wadmalaw Island y comunidades aledañas. / Flyer from the Charleston Dorchester Community Mental Health Department announcing bilingual counseling and therapeutic services to families with young children on Johns Island, Wadmalaw Island, and surrounding communities.
In this four-page handwritten letter, C.C. Tseng discusses his return to Charleston, a visit to Snug Harbor, South Carolina, summer reading plans, and possible visit to New York. Mr. An reports he is now a "talking machine." He has also made the last payment for an automobile and plans to do some gardening. He has received two checks from Laura Bragg and mentions Miss Liu.
Fotografía en color del chef Rubén García comiendo en su restaurante "Sabatino" junto a su esposa Ana García, sus padres y una amiga. El establecimiento estaba ubicado en Savannah Highway. / Color photograph of chef Ruben Garcia, his wife Ana Garcia, her parents and a female friend eating at Garcia's restaurant "Sabatino" which was located on Savannah Highway.
Fotografía en color de María Bordallo y su hija Cindy en el día de su graduación. La fotografía fue tomada frente a la iglesia Blessed Sacrament. / Color photograph of Maria Bordallo with her daughter Cindy on her graduation day. The photograph was taken in front of the Blessed Sacrament Church.
Fotografía a color de una adolescente, Thalia Orozco, rodeada de dos mujeres y dos hombres. A la derecha, Saul Ramos "El Alacrán" y a la izquierda Samuel Olivera "Cachorro" eran locutores en la estación de radio El Sol 980 AM. En este día, la radio organizaba un concurso de canto del que Thalia fue ganadora. / Color photograph of a teenager, Thalia Orozco, surrounded by two women and two men. The two men were radio hosts at the Spanish Radio Station El Sol 980 AM. On the right, Saul Ramos "El Alacran" and on the left Samuel Olivera "Cachorro." On this day, the radio station organized a singing contest. Thalia Orozco was the winner.
Fotografía en color de un trío de música folclórica boliviana actuando en el Festival Hispano en Palmetto Island park. / Color photograph of a Bolivian folk music trio performing at the Hispanic Festival at the Palmetto Island Park.
Tarjeta firmada por la hermana Maria Amelia Ferrillo en ocasión de la celebración de sus sesenta años como religiosa de las Hermanas de la Caridad. La tarjeta está dirigida a Lucy y Angel Cordero a quienes agradece por su presencia y contribuciones al evento. / Card signed by Sister Maria Amelia Ferillo in the occasion her sixtieth anniversary as a Sister of Charity. It was dedicated to Angel and Lucy Cordero. She thanks them for their presence and contributions to the event.
Michelle Mapp was born on September 4, 1969 in Bad Kreuznach, Germany where her father, a U.S. Army drill sergeant was stationed. The family moved back to the United States when she was four years old and to the Charleston area when she was thirteen. Mapp attended Brentwood Middle School and Garret High School in North Charleston. She earned a bachelor's degree in Engineering from Clemson University and a Master of Engineering Management at George Washington University. She lived with her husband in Atlanta for several years and then relocated to Charleston in 2000. While teaching math at Stall High in North Charleston she observed the complexity of community factors that affected her students and became more interested in working on public policies. Following this interest, she enrolled in the master's degree program in public administration at the College of Charleston and started working right away with a newly formed organization, the Charleston Housing Trust. In the interview, Mapp discusses in length the need for affordable housing in Charleston and North Charleston and states that regional conversations and plans are needed and still lacking. She explains that affordable housing requires both finding resources but also modifying government building and development regulations. At the end of the interview, Mapp reflects about the Mother Emanuel AME Chuch massacre, the killing of Walter Scott, and systemic racism in Charleston and South Carolina.
Librarian and educator Kim Williams Odom was born in Charleston, South Carolina in 1970. Her family moved to the Jacksonville Military Base in North Carolina when she was in elementary school. Years later, she returned to Charleston as a single mother looking for a better life for herself and her child. She started taking her young daughter to the J.L. Dart Public Library and there she met Cynthia Graham Hurd who became her boss, her mentor, and her best friend. In the interview, Williams Odom tells about her family's deep roots in Charleston and takes pride in her relatives' achievements and contributions to the community. She remembers her struggles to overcome discrimination and succeed in a hostile school environment in North Carolina and tells about her dreams to become a cultural worker. She also talks about her extended career as a public librarian, including her role in the celebration of the J.L. Dart Public Library 85th anniversary and her experience as a manager at the St. Paul's library in Hollywood. She asserts her family's and Graham Hurd's values and ideas shaped her approach to community work. Finally, Williams Odom remembers the day her friend, along with the other eight church members, was killed at Mother Emanuel AME Church. She explains her refusal to let her friend's story to be reduced and defined by the hate and racism that took her life. Instead, she chose to honor Graham Hurd's life and legacy by keeping her work alive and committing her time and energy to several local projects that accomplished that goal. Finally, she states she is taking time to privately mourn her beloved friend.
Deborah Blalock was born in Pittsfield, Massachusetts in 1959. When she was two years old, her family moved to James Island. She was a student at Nativity School and Bishop England High School and graduated from the College of Charleston majoring in English. Also, she trained as a hand engraver, working at Litaker's and in her father's business, Shogry's Gold Showcase. Years later, she decided to pursue a new career and attended The Citadel earning a master's degree in counseling. She completed her practicum at New Directions, a program of the Charleston Dorchester Mental Health Center (CDMHC) and was offered employment immediately after. In 2004, she became the center director. In the interview, Blalock describes CDMHC's daily operations, the partnership with other community organizations, and how services have evolved over the years. She provides a detailed account of the response to the Sofa Super Store fire and the creation of the First Responders Support Team. Finally, she remembers the aftermath of the Mother Emanuel's tragic shooting and tells about the efforts to provide support to the families of the victims since then. At the time of the interview, the families were preparing for the trial of the killer, Dylann Roof.
Thomas Spera (b.1994). His father was born in the USA and his mother in Argentina. They met while on vacation and fell in love. The young couple made Scotch Plains, New Jersey home and there raised Spera and his two youngest siblings. Interested in pursuing a military career, he enrolled at The Citadel. In the interview, Spera recalls his pre-knob week and his time adjusting to The Citadel's culture as a member of the Band Company. He states his appreciation for the Political Science teachers and the value of having well-versed instructors. Spera reflects on his Latino identity and about embracing his Latino roots. Finally, he observes that The Citadel benefits by having a more diverse student body.
Prentiss Avery Walton (b. 1995). His parents met when his father, a USA citizen, was visiting relatives stationed in a military base in Panama. Walton was born in Williamsburg, Virginia but spent most of his childhood in Rock Hill, South Carolina. His mother homeschooled him and his siblings. In 2006, affected by the declining USA economy, the family relocated to Panama. Walton lived there until he was 16 years old and returned to the USA to finish high school and attend college. In the interview, Walton reflects about growing up in a Black-Latino-Muslim family in two different countries. He talks about being a Citadel cadet, his involvement with campus life as a member of National Coalition Building Institute (NCBI), the Gay-Straight Alliance, and Student Association for Latin and Spanish Awareness (SALSA), and his dreams and plans for the future. Finally, he tells about his fears related to the effects of Trump's racist rhetoric on his communities.