David Henry Mordecai Travel Diary (1856-57)

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    Gesu containing some very fine frescoes, in this was the urn of lapis-lazuli. St Maria supra Minerva, a fine gothic building within, the effect of light on entering was particularly agreeable to the eyes and solemn, they were at service and many lights were burning within. Here is the Statue of Christ by Michael-Angelo [Michelangelo], which we were then unable to see, as it was festival. St Maria in Cosmedin built on the ruins of the temple of Ceres and Prosperpine. We were shown many relics of the ancient building. This was truly an interesting site for nearly opposite is the Temple of Vesta, which is said to have been rebuilt in the second century. Near to this we were shown the Temple of Fortuna Virilis. A little lower down on the opposite side leading to the Senatorial bridge is the House of Nicholas Rinzi. [probably Nicholas Rienzi] From the bridge we had a view on one side of the island of the Tiber. "Isola Esculapius"[Isola Aesculapius, also known as Isola Tiberina, or Tiber Island] from a temple erected to him on this spot. The Ponte Fabrizio [Fabricio?] on one side and Graziaro[? - actually called Ponte Cestio] on the other lead to this island.
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    Thence along the Aventine Mount, on our road we had a view of the Pons Sublicius. Now into the Via Ostiense to visit the Pyramid of Caius Cestius, Monte Testaccio shows itself very prominently. This mausoleum lays just out of the Porta San Paolo near the Protestant cemetery. Continuing our road we were brought to the Basilica of St Paul originally built by Constantine in a farm belonging to Lucina, over the cemetery in which St Paul was buried. The greater part of this church was consumed by fire in 1823 but is now nearly rebuilt on a very magnificent scale. The marbles are superb. Two large urns of made of Malachite presented by the emperor of Russia are an exceedingly costly present. Lapis-lazuli, porphery and several varieties of rare marbles and lavished in the adornment[?] of this church. To the "Velabrum", which was originally a marsh, though drained by the last kings of Rome when the "Cloaca Maxima" was
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    constructed. From the remains of the latter one can form an idea of its immensity. Here at the "Velabrum" is the arch of Janus. "Janus Quadrifons," one of those arches, rasied to shelter the people from the weather. On the opposite side the "Arch of Septimius Severus" erected by the merchants and bankers of the Forum Boarium to Severus and his family. Here at the fort of the Palatine was the "Forum Boarium", where cattle were sold; here was the bronze cow of Myron, brought from Egina. Near this spot was the temple of Hercules, which contained his statue of gilded bronze now in Capitol. On our way we passed by "Theatre of Marcellus" and Portico of Octavia. Through the Ghetto, and by the synagogue. I had forgotten to mention on our way out we passed by the Cenci Palace, Ah what a curse is written upon its ruins. The procession of the carnival is passing before the house, the girls
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    are in the balcony, receiving bouquets, and confectionary. I cannot have the spirits to look, to take a stand. March 4 Friday Picture gallery at the Vatican, The Transfiguration -Raphael. Madonna di Foligno same. Holy family Murillo. Several fine pieces of same. I must notice the Prodigal son. We were obliged to hasten through these rooms of the most choice paintings in the world in order to see the pope at prayer at St Peter's. A very imposing sight the procession on his entrance. His holiness passed very near to us. He is a fat, pleasant looking person. After detaining us some time in anticipation of his visit to the church- we lost much time which might have been profitably passed in the Vatican, as we then had time only to walk through the entrance to the museum, visit the library. The Halls and galleries are magnificent; contain some fine frescoes and many valuable articles. A vase of Egyptian Alabaster. A superb one of porcelain
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    In the Sistine chapel the celebrated Last Judgment- Michael Angelo [Michelangelo]. The frescoes in this chapel are esteemed among the finest. The "Stanze" of Raphael and his "Loggia" The former phased me more than the latter. The "Farnese Palace." Here were some very beautiful frescoes- Among others in one of the rooms. Andromeda by Guido- also by him an Angel and [...]. The rest of this room by the Caracci is full of fine fresco painting. This palace is owned by the King of Naples and is occupied by Neopolitan Minister. "Palazzo Farnesina". Also noted, for its fresco paintings many of which were designed by Raffaello and painted by his scholars and by Guilio Romano. It is also famous for a colossal head sketched in the corner of one of the rooms by Michael-Angelo. March 5 Walked for about an hour the fashionable promenade on the Pincian
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    Saturday Mount, From this elevation we had a fine view of Rome and its conspicuous edifices. St Peter's from here shows to much advantage. We descended to the "Porta San Popolo" and "Piazza" of same name, which led us into "Corso" and thence into our street "Via Condotti". Here all was in preparation, that is the vendors of bouquets and "confetti" crowded the street and and their "Ecco confetti" &c- resounded all around us. The carnival procession was to pass through this street. I truly wish this celebration over, for we are just in the midst of it, and it is very, very discordant to my feelings. March 6 Sunday Church "San Pietro in Vincoli." Statue of Moses by Michael Angelo. Grand piece of sculpture. There also was a "Speranza" of Guido and "St Margaret" Guereino. Then to the ruins of the "Baths of Caracalla" leading us on to the "tomb of the scipios" we took lights and descended into the vaults, where were found the inscriptions on their tombs, not far from there were the "Columbaria" or
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    burial places of the inferior orders and slaves. Those we visited were of the slaves of Augustus. They are so named (Columbaria) from their resemblance to pigeon holes. After the bodies were burned the ashes were deposited in urns, and placed in these niches. Many hundreds of them in one apartment. Here were found vases, and numberless little coins and curiosities which are exposed in the room above for sale. Just before passing through the Porta San Sebastiano or Appia, we passed through the Arch of Drusus, then on through the Appian way, on which excavations commenced to be made in 1846. This is a most interesting drive. We passed the temple of Romulus the son of Maxentius and his circus. A little on the other side of this is said to have been situated the Valley of Egina where was the celebrated fountain visited by Numa to consult the Nymph. Almost in the circus of Romulus is the tomb of Cecilia Metella. Immediately ad
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    joining is the palace of the Gaetani, and opposite are the ruins of a small village built by the same family. The Via Appia is lined by tombs on each side- As we drove through it was extremely curious and interesting to observe the different headlers[?] trunks, torsos, tombs mounds &c &c. At some distance on this road is a beautiful view of the surrounding country, of Albano, of Frascati of [T...?]. The shoots from the Appenines, had a soft pleasing light shed upon them- Then too the ruins of the Aqueduct Julia & Claudia which must have been a magnificent construction and is now so even in ruins added to the picturesqueness of the scene. On our return we took a walk on the Pincian Hill, which was so crowded with the fashionables and strangers in Rome and having music was by no means in harmony with my feelings. I was glad to return to the Hotel.
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    Along the road the children surrounded our carriage with their usual beggar's sing-song: "Signorina[?], poverina Datemi qualehecosa[?] [qualcosa?] piccolina", March 7 1859 Monday "Porta San Lorenzo, here is the commencement of the aqueduct Julia & Marcia, The ruins prove this to have been a noble construction. A little beyond the gate the "basilica San Lorenzo" with little to recommend it but to antiquity and two marble ambones or pulpits said to have been the first used by the Christians in preaching the gospel. Thence to the "Porta Maggiore["]. The Arch of Claudius, said to one of the most magnificent of Ancient Rome. In the time of Honorius here were placed Labican and Prenestine gates. The former no longer remains. In the excavations made about this arch was found the tomb of a baker, with his name Marcus Virgilius Eurysaces, which I read very distinctly. He lived in the latter times of the republic. This was a large and must have been a fine monument. The carvings on it represent
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    the bake house, bread in process of kneading, ovens &c, &c. Just within the gate are some ruins said to be of the "temple of Minerva Medica" from a statue of that goddess found there, now in Vatican. Continuing we came to the (church) basilica St Croce in Gerusalemme. This is one of the seven basilicas of Rome, was built by St Helen, mother of Constantine, receives its name from a portion of the croso brought and deposited here by that empress from Jerusalem. A few paces leads us to some ruins said to be of the temple of Cupid & Venus in the Variano gardens, of Varianus. Marcellus fathers of Heliogabalus. The Claudian Aqueduct is also in this neighborhood. Proceeding through "Porta San Giovanni" ancient "Asinana Gate" through which Totila entered Rome we passed on to the "via Latina", where some very interesting excavations have been lately made, but the "castode" not being there at the time we were
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    unable to do more than take a glance at the exterior residences[?], Amongst other remains discovered was a christian church of 3d century. On our return "St John Lateran" was our destination. The exterior of this basilica is exceedingly imposing. On the balustrade without are ten saints[?] of colossal size and Christ in the centre. Within are the Statues o the twelve apostles also of colossal size. They are down the middle nave, above are some fine alto- relievos. The Corsini chapel is very magnificent and among other fine pieces of sculpture contains "La Temperanza" by Valde, particularly pleasing to me. In this church are preserved the heads of St. Peter & St Paul. Here too we saw the table of the "Last Supper". And four large bronze columns around the altar of the holy sacrament are said to be made of the spars of the Egyptian vessels captured at Aetium, by Augustus.
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    Into the museum of the Lateran. Many curious pieces of Antique Sculpture are here, busts, torsos and but few perfect. The Antinous found at Palestrina is a noble piece, and a fawn struck me as exhibiting a remarkable perfection in the muscles and whole anatomical construction. Otherwise this museum interested me little and I am too lazy to detail its contents. "The Egyptian Obelisk" in the Piazza of the Lateran is the largest in Rome, by cartouches on which the name of Theutmosis II. it is supposed to have been by him erected at Thebes. It was brought from thence to Alexandria by Constantine and by Constantius to Rome. It is of Leyne Granite. The "Fountain of Trevi" is truly magnificent. It is placed in front of a palace (now almost a ruin) Neptune in his car drawn by Sea horses, (which are fine figures) and tritons on each side of him is commanding the waters to gush out of the rocks. There are statues on each side representing plenty and abundance and some bas reliefs on each side of the
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    four pillars which form the back-ground on the palace of the fountain. This horrid carnival brought us home early to-day as it was impossible to break through the crowd and reach the house in the midst of it. March 7 Tuesday "Piazza del Popolo," where are several fountains, some statues, surrounded by churches, and in the centre of the Piazza an Egyptian obelisk; these obelisks occur in almost every conspicuous place in Rome. On the right side of the Piazza near to the gate of same name is the church "Santa Maria del Popolo.["] Among other interesting monuments in this church are two tombs of archbishops by Sansorino, the carving on these is extremely delicate, and they are highly esteemed as works of art. In the chapel of the Madonna di Loreto, belonging to the Chigi family are four statues, magnificent pieces of sculpture. "Daniel in the Lion's Den", "Habakkuk with an angel leaning over his shoulder", these are by Bernini. The prophet Elias and Jonah
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    seated on the whale, a cast of the latter in chalk was sent to the exhibition in London, it is considered a master-piece of sculpture. These two are by Lorenzetto. Church "San Girolamo della schiavone" where are some fine modern frescoes done in 1848. I forgot the artist's name. There is a boldness, in the figures freshness in the coloring and fine expression in some of the features that strikes the beholder with peculiar pleasure. The view in particular, the "crucifixion of Christ between the two thieves", the different grouping of the crowd of beholders, the positions of many remarkably well chosen; the heavenly choir above, and the beautiful celestial light thrown upon them has truly a charming effect. Church "San Agostino", Service was being performed therefore had no opportunity of seeing the principal object of interest, the celebrated fresco of Raphael, of the prophet Isaiah, Numerous devout ones adoring an image of the Madonna and Child, I think said to be of St Luke. "Mausoleum of Augustus", but little of these ruins remain, They were built upon to
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    form a fortress in the 15th century, and within late years an amphitheatre has been constructed over this. In the second tier of this is a remarkable echo, indeed I never heard words, sentences, so perfectly echoed, it seemed supernatural. And our large party in conversation seemed to fill the amphitheatre with persons, which is large enough to contain seven hundred persons. "Palazzo Corsini". Here I was greatly interested, The galleries of paintings contain some to fill one with delight. Amongst those which struck me most were: A Madonna and St Apollonia. Carlo Dolce.[;] Birth of Christ. Battoni[;] St Agnes. Carlo Dolce[;] Prometheus. The vultures drawing out his entrails. Salvator Rosa.[;] Herodius. Guido. Magnificent. She holds in a dish the head of St John the baptist. [;] Cupid " [Guido.] The colouring of the flesh is perfect, and the position of the child, in a lying posture displays every limb to utmost advantage and naturalness.
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    Vestal. Carlo Maratta. [;] Madonna & child. Murillo. Except the Madonna di Foligno, I never saw a lovelier expression of face. A little copy on irony an artist there much temped one. But-- Judith with head of Holofernes- Gherardo della Notte.[;] Ecce Homo. Guido. There are three of these placed together. Guido. Guercino & Carlo Dolce. What a difference in expression that of Guido so full of pain & holiness mingled so much of patient suffering and sweetness blended together that I cannot wonder at the adoration bestowed upon a fine painting by those of highly wrought imaginations, indeed I could almost myself have turned idolator. Those of Guereino and Carlo Dolce, although even so inexperienced an eye as mine could perceive their superiority, yet the expression of pain of suffering, predominated. And one can here see to advantage the "rapture I may see beaming from the countenance in Guido's. They tell me I missed much in not visiting the "Spada Palace", but terror of being hedged up in the carnival procession
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    brought me home in advance of the others, so I shall never know, I presume what I missed. There is the veritable statue of Pompey at whose feet Caesar was murdered. March 9, Wednesday To the "Vatican", Crowds were proceeding to the Sistine Chapel where the Pope officiated, Randolph. E. & M. went but the rest of us preferred making the rounds of the museum as our time was limited. A short time in the ante-room leading to the chapel gave us an opportunity of seeing many of cardinals & dignitaries and the Queen dowager of Spain (Maria Christina) a fat, bright looking Spanish woman. The museums afford many specimens of the finest sculpture, beautiful marbles, vases, torsos. The hall of Animals contains some very choice collections of sculpture. The Hall of the Biga, this sculptured chariot gives its name to the room. The "Apollo Belvedere", the [L...?]" the Antinous, these famous pieces, t'were
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    superfluous for me to remark upon. But I must observe that a fine piece of sculpture does not make such an impression, does not attract me as a fine painting. There are too many parts to fill up. A picture gives the whole idea, a statue the outlines. One must devote time to the contemplation of these "chefs d'oeuvres" to drink in their beauties, otherwise you leave them with disappointment. Canova's "Perseus with Medusa's head" and his "Two boxers" really pleased my inexperienced eye as much and more than many of the famous pieces of antiquity. The Nile surrounded by 16 angels to denote its rise, is a wonderful piece. The attitudes of these little figures is perfect and some of them very arch. I am absolutely too lazy and tired to minute down the many things that struck me as curious and interesting. The Egyptian museum contains much to interest one who has time to devote to it; we ran through it. I long again to visit the
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    picture gallery. Palazzo Rospigliosi. Here is the celebrated fresco of Aurora by Guido. Pollo is represented in the chariot of the Sun the seven nymphs surrounding it representing the hours are some of them charming and graceful figures. The colouring is brilliant. In one of the rooms is a fine Adam & Eve in the garden of Eden. the Animals birds &c are finely represented and the picture is large and combines many beauties, It is by Domenichino. In another room are Christ and 12 apostles by Rubens- The Christ most particularly pleased me. The expression is full of holiness and beauty and the turn of the head remarkably fine. Rubens' colouring is so peculiar to himself that it needs no comment. We then visited some ruins of Baths of Caracalla, where was little of interest. Rewarded with fine view of Rome. Two immense blocks of carved marble from temple of Sun were also there. Palazzo Barberini. One of the rooms here
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    contains some choice pieces. Raphael's Fornarina. Guido's Beatrice Cenci. How totally these two differ from each other, yet how excellent each in its excellences. The former a rich, bright looking beauty. The latter so full of appealing suffering. I know not how to express its saddening effect upon me. I saw there several others well worth noting, but flying visits to so many galleries make too great a draw upon my memory. The "Gallery of St Luke". Here we really did no more glance around. A picture of Raphael: St Luke painting the Madonna, occupied most of my time there. One of the figures, the woman leaning over St Luke, contemplating his work, is said to be a likeness of Raphael himself. "The Nymphs." Titian, I rarely saw. Made some purchases of roman scarfs. and all to-day my heart feels sad-sad. March 10 Thursday An excursion to Tivoli, started at 7 1/2 P. M. Mrs Prevost & Miss Reeves accompanied us. So very high wind marred some of our
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    enjoyment, father being unwilling that we should visit the finest points to view the falls of the Anio, which certainly from the view I had, disappointed me exceedingly. While the others were on their way down the mountain I remained with father & mother and amused myself with a little italian girl, her eyes were so beautiful, the expression of her countenance so arch and her voice & words so sweet that she quite captivated us. We offered her some of the provision we had with us which she refused saying it was "vigilia" that day and she could not eat any. A little boy on the road too was very amusing. On our way to Tivoli visited Hadrian's villa where much fine statuary and some fine mosaic pavements were found. The ruins are very extensive and cover a large extent of ground. Father bought me what was called a piece of petrified tree from Neptune's grotto. March [??] The sky to-day. A real italian blue, and a perfect atmosphere. Immediately after breakfast
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    11 Friday went to visit some pieces of mosaic work at some different shops. Some really exquisite work. Purchased a roman scarf for my little name-sake. Returned home in time to meet father and Randolph, and then proceeded to St Peter's to ascend into the dome, father would not allow us to go higher than the first gallery, which however served to give an idea of the immensity of the structure. The view around is not so fine as I had anticipated. Entering into the gallery we had a view within the church, which made the numbers of people who were then walking to & fro in the church (as the pope was expected there) appear like pigmies, they must have resembled ants from the gallery above, for there is one still higher than this. After descending we remained in the church awhile awaiting Randolph and while there the Pope came in for his devotions, and as usual was to pass through a crowd of spectators. We left as soon as he entered and went into the Vatican, to the picture gallery
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    where I was more interested than in any other part of this world of interesting exhibitions. Before I proceed to the painting I must pause before the "Pieta" of Michael-Angelo. This piece of Sculpture is on the first chapel on the right on entering. The position of the Christ in the arms of Mary is striking in its naturalness, the arm hanged to induce the beholder to raise it, and the figure is well calculated to induce devotion in beholders. I remained some time in the picture gallery and could willingly have passed my morning there. Besides those incomparable pictures. The "Transfiguration" and the others [by?] Raffaello are the "Communion of St Jerome" Domenichino- "A Sebastian" Titian. "Madonna & child" Sassoferrato. "Madonna & child, St Thomas & St Luke" Guido. "Prodigal Son" Murillo, "Madonna & child & St Catherine" Murillo "A deposition from the cross." Caravaggio. The "Madonna di Foligno" of Raffaello
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    These were most particularly beautiful to my eye and I could willingly have lingered over them. From the Vatican took carriages and drove to Villa Pamfile [Pamphili] Doria. The grounds of this villa are extensive and laid out in shady walks; The foliage about is graceful, And an artificial lake in which the swans, purely white and incomparable in regard to grace, sail over its surface and add considerably to the charm of the place. We were not allowed to enter into the garden as it was one of the days on which it was not for exhibition, and we had a provoking view of fountains, camelias, beds of violets, and every thing the prettier from the prohibition. Thence to the Janiculum on the summit of which is the "Fontana Paolina" which is the purest clearest water that makes thirst a blessing. The view from here of Rome and the surrounding country seemed to me grand, but on a lower descent to the
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    church of "San Pietro in Montorio", the view was finer than we have ever yet had, Rome seemed then worthy of her fame. All the hills were from here discernible. Such a view gladdened my heart. My dearest brother particularly marks this view, and thus an added interest to enjoy what he enjoyed seemed to bring me nearer to him. The atmosphere returning became quite cold. March 12. Saturday To-day- Seven weeks have elapsed since our dearest brother was taken from us- I cannot but feel him always amongst us. His spirit is I feel it. I may truly call this an exquisite day. With Minna & Tosh took a walk to the Pincian. There are many pleasant retreats about these walks, the only ones within walking distance from the city that Romans could resort to for comfort of pleasure. Returned home about 1 P. M. and then walked to Villa Borghese. The grounds here are extensive but did not strike me as being remarkably beautiful. In the palace the first gallery is a magnificent "coup d'oeil"
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    The frescoes on the ceiling are by Rossi, representing Camillus' arrival at the Capitol. The coloring is bright, the grouping excellent and the figures and even countenances of some of the personages remarkably well done. This room is superb, filled with statuary as are each of the smaller ones communicating with it. There is a room of corresponding size parallel and adjoining this, but not so handsomely finished. I am too lazy to give a description of this fine collection but I am too tired & sleepy and anxious to examine these books of carvings which lay temptingly before me. I must but pass over the upper story of this palace which contains the choice pieces. The first hall you are ushered into contains a "David in the act of throwing the stone at the Giant". Aeneas with his father Anchises on his shoulders" "Apollo & Daphnis" of Bernini. In another apartment is the celebrated "Venus Vincitrice" of Canova. The model of which was Pauline Bonaparte. I feel that I have given not
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    the remotest idea of the splendor of these apartments but am too impatient. March 13 Sunday. Another exquisite day. I regret to pass so much of it in this almost sepulchral room, where the light of day hardly enters. We did not take carriages until 11 1/2 A. M. and then proceeded to church S. Agnese, where I saw little except the painting on the dome, frescoes by [?blank] to interest me. To the ruins of the "Palace of the Caesars," we had no guide to point out these remains, we were on the Palatine mount, and the views around, added to the clearness of the sky; the number of, I may almost say, colossal ruins peering upon us on all sides, together with the knowledge of their great antiquity and the names and association connected with them made it a scene worthy of being impressed upon the memory, from the "Orti Farnesiani" orti, (gardens) where we next proceeded we visited the remains of the baths of Livia, Palace of Caligula, Augustus all I believe a continuation of the same Palace
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    of the Caesars. From points in these gardens I think the views more extensive. There was the Roman Forum, just below us, with the ruins of Temples of Minerva, Concord Jupiter Tonans &c, Arch of Septimius Severus, Column Phocas &c- On the other side Basilica of Constantine anciently Baths of Titus, again turning the head is perceived the grand ruin of the Colosseum. I think the finest view of it I have had. In front of us was pointed out the bridge called "curia virilia", leading from this palace to the Capitol and built by Augustus. Near the baths of Titus we saw fine ruins of the temple of Antoninus and Faustina. "Mammertine Prison". These places the site of so much anguish and suffering were built under Aneus Martius. I only descended to the first story and saw the iron gratings through which the victims were said to have been let into the prison. "Church San Gregorio". Here were some celebrated frescoes. In one chapel was
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    the Almighty adored by Angels by Guido. I confess this composition pleased me little, and I rather fancy it takes a practised eye to discover its beauties. In another chapel are the Flagellation of St. Andrew by Domenichino and opposite the rival performance of the same Saint being led to execution and adoring the cross. In one of the female figures composing the groups in this painting is represented Beatrice Cenci. These are very celebrated performances and truly calculated to inspire admiration in the beholder. The next chapel contains a statue a statue of St Gregory. The head said to have been done by Michael-Angelo the rest by Niccolo Cordieri. Here also is preserved a marble table where the same Gregory is said to have daily fed 12 paupers. "Santa Maria della Pace," church. Here are the celebrated frescoes of Raffaello representing The Persian, Phrygian, Cumean and Tiburtine Sybils. "Santa Maria sopra Minerva" church
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    I merely entered here to see the statue of Christ by Michael-Angelo- A truly grand piece of work, although to my idea inferior to his Moses. Our English fellow traveller has succeeded in finding us at home. I was really pleased to see him just now- Mr Cochran. March 14. Monday. After breakfast went with father to exchange a mosaic paper stamp he had purchased for me, did so satisfactorily. With him to a studio of sculpture, where I could willingly have laid out some hundred had they been at my disposition. A Red riding-hood and two or three pieces representing grey-hounds in different postures would certainly have found their way into the collection. Returned, found the rest of the party who had also been shopping still at breakfast, Again with Mother on an expedition for roman scarfs. At 1 P. M. took carriages for the Campidoglio. The statuary in the different departments here would require a volume to itself, as at Vatican, so I shall not
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    presume to comment upon them. The "Dying Gladiator" and the "Venus" are the gems of the collection. Two "Centaurs" in nero antico admirable pieces. In commencing even I find so many rush upon my memory, that I know not how to select. In one of the rooms was the piece of Mosaic taken from the villa of Hadrian at Tivoli. It represents doves drinking from a fountain, A copy of the work of Sosus mentioned by Pliny existing at Pergamos in Asia minor. We then went to the other side where are the picture galleries. In one of the lower rooms is a very magnificent sarcophagus of Severus and his mother Mammea; the most magnificent I have yet seen. Among the pictures is a very large painting of Santa Petronilla. She is first represented as being drawn from the tomb, then ascending to heaven surrounded by angels. It is by Guereino. A St Sebastian of Guido, with the loveliest face I ever saw. In the first saloon of the "Halls of the Conservatories" are some frescoes painted by
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    il cavaliero d'Arpino. The remaining Halls also contain fine frescoes and interesting contents. I am too lazy to note down even what interested me for the fleas make me wild. A short distance led us to the Tarpeian rock. From this spot we had a very good view of Roma and its hills. The "Colunna Palazzo". Although the collection of pictures here are not to compare to most of the other galleries we have visited, the Saloon is the most magnificent I have been in here. The paintings on the ceiling are very beautiful: one of these represents the Battle of Lepanto. In one of the rooms, the ceiling is painted in oil. Among the pictures two of Venus by Vasari are very beautiful. March 15 Tuesday A murky, cloudy sad looking day. How different Rome seems under a cloudy canopy. The sun gilds even her ruins and gives them a cheerful and attractive charm.
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    Went with Randolph to visit some studios of sculpture. Among these that of Mr Gibson when I saw a Venus, the flesh painted, he said it was a universal practice among ancients, confess not by any means pleasing to my eye. Here also Miss Hosmer has her studio, amongst her collection was [blank] and a Beatrice Cenci. Next went to visit the Studio of Mr Rogers. Here I was much interested. He was at work upon a door for the House of Representatives at the Capitol in Washington. It is to be cast in bronze the basso relievos represent scenes in that life of Christopher Columbus. He also has the most expressive piece of marble I ever saw representing Lydia, the blind girl in Bulwer's "Last days of Pompeii". Mr[?] Crawford's Studio. The works designed by this sculptor were all in process of completion. There were few in the studio except those upon which they were at work. T'was saddening to think
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    of the misfortune of this artist before his death. Next to this was the studio of a Mr Bartholomew [probably Edward Sheffield Bartholomew], where I saw a few pleasing pieces. A veiled head &c. Letters from home to-day. Non ancora han avuto le triste notizie. Ah Dio! ogni giorno, piu sento cio che ho perduto. Nelle lettere quanto chiaro e la-- di questo mondo. Last evening the Cubans who came on with us in the Persia and the brothers Rhett passed the evening with us- The latter must have been much of their time while in Germany with my dearest brother. Quanto ho voluto parlar di lui. [How much I would have wished to speak about him] March 16. Wednesday From Rome to Naples Pierre called me this morning at 5 A. M. and our breakfast was over and ready to start by 6 1/2, when our postillion detained us until 7 1/2. Our friends Mrs. Prevost & Miss Reeves had Ellen & Minny in their carriage. We leave Rome through the gate
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    by Vettura [main entry:] San Giovanni and our road lay through the famous Appian Way. Our first relay was at Albano; this like all the Italian towns is miserably filthy and as the carriage stops, surrounded by beggars, blind, lame deaf & drunk, that one could hardly fancy so many unfortunates collected together in one small place, enlisting one's sympathies if you felt secure that these infirmities were not assumed merely for the moment. "Povero ciego, signora, piccola moneta". These cries are so common that the children through a mischief imitate them and the noise is perfectly stunning at times, As we progressed, and at every town the nearer the approach to Naples, the crowds of beggars, these cries, and miserable looking wretches increased upon us. About a mile from Albano and through a beautiful walk. I [...] almost [...] gallery leading to it is Castel Gandolfo, situated on the beautiful lake of Albano. Here the pope has a palace
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    The next relay was at La Riccia, which is on the lake Nemi. One of our relays, Cisterna is said to be the Tres Tabernea of St Paul, mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. The next station from Cisterna, "Torre dei tre Ponti" is the commencement of the Pontine marshes. The early part of the day had been rainy & cloudy, but just about this time the sun came out clear & bright, and the avenue extending some miles from the commencement of these marshes, together with the shoots of the Appenines in the distance and the fresh , green looking grass, gave to these marshes a cheerful and even pleasant aspect. At the western extremity of the Pontine marshes is Torre d'Astura at the mouth of the river of same name, and several miles from here (through which however we did not pass) is Capo d'Anzio, the Ancient Antium, at which place was found the Apollo Belvedere. At the other western extremity is the Cape of Circe
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    Terracina We reached Terracina, our resting place for the night about 1/2 6 P.M. Here we found comfortable beds & apartments, a striking contrast to those we had left at the Hotel d'Allemagne in Rome. The view from some of the windows looked upon a delightful beach, projecting out like a peninsula. The other side were steep projections of rock, offshoots from the mountains. As we arrived at dark and left about daylight, could form no opinion scarcely of the place. March 17. Thursday. A short distance beyond the road is very beautiful, indeed the whole drive is a succession of charming views. Terracina is the ancient Anxur. Six miles from here is the termination of the Papal dominions on this side. Between Fondi & Itri we passed over a very steep mountain exceedingly rocky and very bare of shrubbery. Mother thought the scenery around very grand. Every here and there
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    the mountains form extensive amphitheatres. Itri, one of the Post towns is the birth place of Fra Diavolo. From this place, nearing Mola di Gaeta, the most beautiful panoramas presented themselves to our view, Gaeta, on a projection extending into the sea, is most charmingly situated. At Mola the view is situated on the side of the villa of Cicero. Mola di Gaeta is the ancient Formia. Here mother amused herself much by throwing sugar plums to some little children who were mimicking the blind beggars. One boy jumped on another's shoulders, and shutting his eyes, with the most laughing countenance kept crying out: "Povero ciego signora. qualche cosa per un povero ciego.' About 8[?] miles from here is the river Garigliano, ancient Liris, there is a very fine bridge over this river, which separates Latium from Camponia. Capua is a large very dirty town, of course, it is fifteen miles from Naples
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    I was struck by the numbers of buffaloes which they employ with their oxen. the latter are peculiar for their enormous horns. The carts or burden wagons along this road had the harnesses of their horses decorated with large gilt projections in front containing a variety of decorations and jingling bells. The dresses of the peasantry are bright and tawdry, red always predominating. The people about here are mostly sallow and miserable looking. One can hardly write the idea of such a rich country and such an immense deal of poverty and misery around them. It was bright moonlight when we entered Naples. And the formality of pass-ports and useless torments that they inflict on travellers in this country kept us fully an hour before we reached our hotel, for we were obliged to drive through the streets walking, I should rather say, creeping pace.
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    Naples We passed through some broad and beautiful streets; such a contrast to those we had left in Rome that they struck me as being peculiarly so. However gaslight casts a magic glove over all and to-day will either disenchant or perfect the first pleasing impression. Our hotel commands a beautiful view of the bay of Naples, a partial view of Vesuvius, and looks upon Villa reale. Hotel Victoria. In my room, when I went to bed, a beautiful moon was shining upon the bay, Vesuvius looking upon me from one side, and the twinkling lights from the buildings along the promontory form of shore extending into the sea, the lights reflected in the water of the bay, had a most picturesque enchanting effect. The moon shining in my windows, while I was in bed, radiating my room so delightfully lulled me to sleep, and brought the image of my cherished brother more vividly before me. I felt
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    he was enjoying happiness, which this world could never have bestowed on him and I prayed to be made worthy of inhabiting with him in the future. March 18 Friday A bright light waked me early this morning, although the day was not clear; still I do not think it will rain. Rose early but was not prepared to come out until breakfast, at 9 1/2- Where all of us are assembled. Our parlor here is really quite elegantly furnished. There is an eating room attached to our suite of rooms and the sleeping apartments are quite comfortable. We have made arrangements with the "Valet de place" for our sight seeing excursion to commence at 12 M. Our two carriages were at the door at 1 P. M. but the sun was overclouded and the so much vaunted mildness of this climate disappointed me much. The vegetation is certainly not farther
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    advanced, if so far as ours, and the dampness of the atmosphere and cloudy skies tended in no little degree to lessen the effect of the beautiful landscapes that surrounded us in our drive to-day. First to the "Museo Borbonico." As we had scarcely an hour to devote to the many objects of art and interest here collected, we merely made an entrance and examined some of the frescoes and a few of the statues and articles taken from Herculaneum and Pompeii. Among the frescoes was a curious little piece taken from the villa of Diomedes (Pompeii) representing a grasshopper drawn by a parrot in a car, supposed to be copied from Zeuxis. Many pieces of statuary struck me at the time, but so hasty a glance could not fix any one in mind, as during the day so many novelties have presented themselves to me. The American Minister has just come in
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    to pay a visit. He seems rather advanced in years and quite a plain person. After leaving the museum, visited the "catacombs of S. Januarius", After entering one of the vaults, my curiosity was satisfied, as the similarity of this to the other subterraneous chambers I had visited, and a lack of enthusiasm at the moment for sight-seeing, kept me above with Mother & Mrs. Prevost. The accounts of the adventurers tended in no way to cause me to regret my determination. On our exit some nuns at the door of the convent of "St Januarius" which is just on this spot, beckoned us to enter, which we did, our conductress was pretty, fat and lively; took quite a fancy to mother and kept repeating to her how pretty she thought her. Their institution is principally, I believe, for tending the si[c]k. A drive to the "Campo Santo" ended our excursion for the day. The road gives us points of charming views, and the cemetery could not have been
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    placed in a site more adapted to harmonise our feelings with the thoughts of eternity. Strange that external objects should so affect us. It was 5 o-clock when we returned to the hotel and as we all concluded that a walk before dinner would be more agreeable to all of us, crossed over to the "Villa Reale", which is a well laid out walk, shady on the sides, with some really fine statues, fountains &c and much resorted to by the Neopolitans. The evening cleared off very beautifully and the rays of the setting sun cast as glorious light upon the island of Capri, Vesuvius the peaks and projections around it, and the harbor of Naples. Then indeed the view, the scene impressed me as a peculiarly italian one. Our dinner at 6. furnished in our own apartment, was the best served and to my taste prepared of any since I have left home. Our friends render it much pleasanter than otherwise.
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    March 19. Saturday. To-day of course, we have been quietly within doors, excepting a walk in the Villa Reale, walking in these Neapolitan streets is said to be by no means desirable. Father and myself separated ourselves from the rest of the party and passing before a kind of temple in the gardens were about to enter, when a guard who was patrolling there, prohibited our entrance saying that the royal family were within, being quite open, we found said royal family to consist of two ordinary children and an infant. I found the Minister (Mr Chandler) a pleasant, chatty person, he is to call to-morrow to accompany Ellen & Minny to church; He is a catholic. Invited us all to tea with him to-morrow evening, which we of course declined. Mrs P. and Miss R. will go however. March 20 Sunday The birth-day of my dearest mother, May she be spared to us many, many years in the enjoyment of health, happiness
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    and prosperity. My dearest brother the celebration of every anniversary makes a fresh wound in my heart. I feel my loss the keener. Ellen & Minny have gone to church and also Mrs P. & Miss R. The day is lovely and view of the bay from my window is charming. I have just finished some letters home. Have been skimming over Eustace's "Classical Tour," to gain some idea of the localities about here and associations connected with them. Between 3 & 4 PM took a walk intending to visit one of the principal churches here, which was however closed. I think I never found walking more disagreeable. The streets excessively dirty and crowded with the lower classes. Returned by passing before the Royal Place and down the Chiaia to our Hotel Vittoria. The women about here were at the most disgusting employments. And the old women look like the veriest witches. The street, quay rather was lined
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    with carriages on their way to the Villa Reale. In these gardens are some really fine statues, and at one point a remarkably fine view of Vesuvius. Pierre has just come in from making the ascent of Vesuvius and brought each of us a piece of lava which he had stamped while up there. March 21. Monday. After breakfast, we all went to visit some coral and lava establishments. Made very few purchases, but selected some which helped to make. I a coral necklace for my little Hortense &c, &c. By 12 M. returned in order to be in time for firstly a visit to two or three of the churches, which after having seen those in Rome afford little of interest. The cathedral contains in the chapel of St Gennaro the capola finely frescoed by Lanfranco, I confess the subject is not to my taste, as it represents the Almighty. The effect of these domes frescoed is almost always grand. The frescoes in the other
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    parts of the chapel are also by Domenichino. Here too are some oil paintings of Spagnoletto and Domenichino of much merit. The church of St Maria della Pieta, called also San Severino contains some remarkable pieces of sculpture. A dead Christ, represented laid out on a bier and covered with a veil which appears to adhere to the skin from the effects of the moisture of death, every muscle distinctly visible, and the features as perfect as seen through the finest gauze. & finale[?] [finally?] enveloped in a veil. The features and form appearing through to great advantage. The woman represents modesty and is intended for the Mother of Prince Raymond di Sangro, one of the Patrons of the church and relative of the founder. There is another figure of a man entangled in a net, and extricating himself by the aid of an angel. Intended as significant of Virtue triumphing over Vice through the aid of the good Genius. This figure
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    is intended to represent the father of the above-mentioned Prince. These pieces of sculpture are the first executed by Corradini, the second by Queirolo. The Christ was designed by Corradini, who died before having time to execute it, it was finished by Sammastius[?], a Neapolitan. These churches not occupying much time, a visit to the grotto of Posilopo [Posilipo], which appears to be an immense tunnel, cut through the hill, rather I should say under it. It is very dark, and kept lighted by lamps every here and there. About the centre a large excavation throws in a refreshing daylight after such dungeon like darkness. Many of the peasantry were passing through with their cattle, and others. Carriages & vehicles of various sorts. On emerging from this tunnel the views were not nearly so fine as I had anticipated. The country borrowed its charms from
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    the contrast. Proceeded on to the Grotto del Cane. A much more beautiful scene here presents itself to the view. The lake d'Agnano, surrounded on all sides by hills, covered with shrubbery. There are several hot & warm springs around this lake, some of them said to be efficacious in cases of rheumatism and some other diseases. In these "stufe" as they are called, I could scarcely endure even an entrance. One of the springs is called "Ammoniac" Father & Mother entered and inhaled it, said the hartshorn effluvia was overpowering. In the "grotto del Cane" so called from a dog always being made use of to display its effects, the arrival was brought, and after some unsuccessful extortions attempted by the exhibitors, they came to their senses and tested the poor animal by allowing it to inhale the gas, which scarcely a
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    moment's inspiration rendered almost lifeless, however on being brought into the air it soon recovered. Torches were extinguished as soon as brought into contact with this gas. I was much amused with the beggar children on this route. They resort to every variety of antics for a few Grani, Some, almost infants made the most curious noises by striking their hands under their chins, turned somersetts, made horrible noises, and hoisted themselves about most curiously. The peasantry struck me as being remarkably ugly, a great contrast to those about the neighborhood of Rome, whose complexions of clear olive, bright black eyes, and jet black hair; are characteristics peculiarly theirs. The Neapolitans sallow, with straggly yellow hair, or very miserable looking whatever it may be, with filth added to the rest, have little about them to
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    call forth our admiration. The old women are the veriest looking witches I ever came across. On our return visited the tomb of Virgil which is just above the Grotto on the Hill of Posilipo. Here were obliged to ascend a number of steep steps and after that to make a considerable ascent. Before reaching the summit of the Hill both father and myself yielded to the weakness of not desiring to go farther and remained on a staircase or terrace, from whence was obtained a lovely view of Naples, its bay Vesuvius, the towns at its feet and all the surrounding scenes belonging to this truly enchanting spot. I returned to the Hotel with a headache. found letters from home
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    they were just in receipt of the sad intelligence. Ah! how my heart ached again. Poor Rosa & dear Sister Una triste Notte ho passato. March 22. Tuesday. Just two months since that loved one was taken from us. Passed the day in visiting the disentombed cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Left Naples at 9 A.M. in carriages- Our drive lay through Portici, Torre del Greco, and Torre dell'Annunziata. A most interesting one, it seems like one continued street from the moment of leaving the hotel. Along the quay, the women were mostly netting[?], with their infants swaddled and in baskets at their sides. The men lounging lazily about. Some of the women washing upon the ramparts, drawing up the water in buckets, and altogether presenting a most animated scene. The shops on the opposite side displaying every variety of Terra-cotta, Tiles, corals, Tortoise shell and the various establishments for
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    which Naples is celebrated. As we proceeded further and into the villages the famous maccaroni was hanging on what we should call horses, rather I should say lines. It looked any thing but tempting. I have yet in anticipation to see the "Lazzaroni swallow Maccaroni," except through the grimaces made by the children where begging for money to employ for the purpose. Pompeii is about 3 hours drive. The villa of Diomedes was the first building into which we entered. This building consists of three stories and cellars. Highest story contained the "Impluvium" or cistern, which is a large reservoir for water, surrounded by columns, and around it are galleries, serving as sitting room. There was also the "Triclinium" or dining room in all the houses small, they always had seats around on which they reclined at meals. The bed-rooms always communicated with the sitting and dining, and I saw
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    no windows in them, in any of the houses, they are extremely small, barely large enough to contain a bed. The pavements in this as in many of the other houses, still retain the remnants of beautiful mosaics. In the cellar, I saw the distinct impression of several heads, that of a woman, a child, and another which I could not well distinguish. Here also were several very large jars, filled with sand and pumice-stone, said wine jars, and others from the state in which found to have contained oil. The cellar is of considerable size- And many skeletons were found there. On the opposite side of the street were sarcophagi bearing the inscription of several of Diomedes family. Very near on same street, a tomb, the basso relievos in excellent preservation, all exclaimed modern, containing however the ancient inscription of Naevolai Tyche to her husband C. Manatius[?] Faustus. It represents a ship in full sail, one sailor
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    climbing the most- several others variously employed, the master seated at the stern. I have no time to enter into any description of the various buildings into which we entered. I can only mention a baker's shop. The flues of the oven are in a perfect state of preservation. The machines for kneading the dough, into which, on each side are places for two honey spoons. There are three of these, one quite entire. The theatre is a fine ruin. But the amphitheatre is really a magnificent remnant, next the Coliseum, the finest I have seen. It was said to have contained 50000 spectators and here they were collected at the time of eruption in 79. A.D. The view from the gallery is extensive and fine. Attached to all the houses were bath rooms. And the public baths, must have contained beautiful marbles, statues, frescoes and stucco work. At the amphitheatre we took our lunch, the young Cubans, the de Montals' joined our party. A little boy with a very sweet voice, his father accompanying him on the
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    violin and his mother at his side followed us up the ascent to the amphitheatre, we gave him some "carlini" and he sang all the while we lunched. Herculaneum is overbuilt by Portici and Resina. This is by no means so interesting a visit as that to Pompeii. The modern cities rendering it impossible to make excavations except in a few spots. The theatre gives evidence of immense size. Torches must be used in visiting it, and the dampness and vaultiness of the air the darkness and humidity does not [...] one for the inconvenience of a visit. A few private houses in an excavation beyond the modern city a few paces contain more interesting objects for the visitor. Here as at Pompeii the houses have bath-rooms, all fitted up with more regard to convenience than their bed-rooms, which gives the idea that here the ancient inhabitants always made their toilet. I cannot find a spare moment to
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    enter into any minute description of these places, as the day-time is occupied in excursions and the evening frequently interrupted by visitors. An english girl and her father Mr & Miss Dater interrupted my pennings She is a frail looking girl and immediately after an attack of measles made the ascent of Vesuvius to the very Crater. March 23 Wednesday. This is a day in my life to date from. The grandest work of nature was this day unveiled to us. The day was lowering and every turn of the mountain seemed to bring us still farther into the midst of gloom and obscurity, Now and then a glimpse of the flaming lava, confirmed the delusion of an approach to the internal regions. As we ascended the deep cavities hollowed out now here, now there, showed the continual workings of this everlasting fire. Naples, its bay, environs and hills made a lovely contrast to this gloom above. All at once this scene would burst upon us, at different turns, lighted by a ray of sun-shine which seemed
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    obscured every where else by immense masses of cloud The carriages could not advance but to within nearly an hour's walk to the Hermitage, and the storm seeming to rise with violence, with no shelter around but that afforded by the carriage, we were all desirous of proceeding as speedily as possible to that shelter. Our party including three couriers consisted of 22. New york lady, Miss Davis, asking to be allowed to join us, as she was in company with a brother not able to go. The Owens' also joined party. I am ashamed to express the terror I evinced and experienced on walking as far as I went- out the dense darkness of the clouds above my head, the fearful height at which I seemed when looking below the gulf of blackened lava seeming almost under any very feet, and here too we were obliged to pick our steps over these huge masses, crackling under
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    our very feet, hanging on the arm of a dirty guide, who insisted on following me and whom I clutched strongly in some steep places; were all too many tests to my feeble stock of that commodity- So I was the first to turn back, my weakness as I thought deprived mother of much gratification but had hardly returned to the carriage, before we were followed by the whole party, advised to return as the view from where we then were was as fine as could be obtained. Randolph had determined to make the ascent to the crater, but he was too late, and consoled I think with a tete a tete drive with Miss Davis. As night is the best for having the burning lava presented to our view in all its grandeur, each carriage had a basket of refreshments, and seated along the ridges of the mountain, it seemed almost populous as a village. It was 1 1/2 when we left the hotel. About 6 P.M. we walked to the crater, the lower one, and an indescribable
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    scene presented itself to us. The crater, to my eye seemed to be a gap extending down fully a hundred feet, and forming a very large basin, streams of burning, living fire pouring down on all sides, taking every variety of form, and coiling themselves like serpents- At times a crash would be heard and huge masses of burning stone might be seen tumbling down into this basin of fire. The Spectacle was truly sublime. The threatening storm fortunately passed from us and the rays of the setting sun cast a superb light upon the bay and city of Naples- seeming to throw over it numberless rainbows. It was very nearly 9 P.M. when we returned to the Hotel. Mr. Preston came in at that moment to see us. His misfortune came at the same time as ours, and under circumstances almost identically similar March 24. Another visit to the Museo Borbonico, for about an hour & a half
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    amongst the statuary was the celebrated Hercules of Glycon- or Farnese Herculese found in the baths of Caracalla, it was brought by him from Athens. In the next room the "Toro Farnese" this piece of statuary represents the sons of Antiope, Amphion and Zethus tying Dirce to the horns of a bull for having seduced the affection Lycus, their father, from Antiope. The latter is represented interceding for her rival. The bull appeared to me to be the finest figure of the group But as I have before remarked, I dare not trust myself to criticise or minutely examine, what I feel myself so incompetent to form hardly an opinion of. The rooms appropriated to the articles from Pompeia and Herculaneum , are exceedingly interesting. Here were collected all their articles of household use, the two whole loaves of bread, on one of which I read the name of the baker, impressed upon it. There was also
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    morsels of bread, dates, nuts, grain &c &c all of which were easily distinguishable. Large quantities of jewelery, A ring on the bone of a finger. I cannot pretend to enter into any notice of the large collection. In this collection is the "Tazzo Farnese" a shallow cup, made of onyx stone- with a group in relief within, and a Medusa's head on the outside. It is very nearly the size of an ordinary plate, and very little more of a cavity. There is much in reserve for another visit to this museum. Father and Mother called for us here at 12 1/2- And we proceeded to the Palazzo of Capo di Monte. Very beautifully situated on the summit of the hill and commanding some fine views of the surrounding villages, city and bay. The gardens are finely laid out. In the first are some sweet scented flowers, the second is entirely composed of
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    trimmed hedges. The entrance to this has a very picturesque effect. A large space opens itself to the view. And five Avenues proceed from this. Through the centre one, which appears to extend fully a mile the perspective is remarkable. We walked to induce considerable fatigue, without seeing anything of interest if I may except, a large flock of peacocks And a casino with some very beautiful Gold and Silver pheasants. The custode made some difficulty as to our entering into the palace, but his seruphs turned on a golden hinge, like that of all his countryman. There are here extensive and magnificent suites of apartments. I am lazy about describing them, The paintings are all modern. Some I remarked particularly, but hurried over most of them. Amongst them I observed particularly the Judith and Holofernes. She is first
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    represented in the act of adorning herself to visit Holofernes; then on her way to the Camp. Then in the act of committing the deed. Again a grand picture, displaying the head to the people. The ball room, is really splendid. The ceiling is covered with light frescoes, Glass chandeliers hanging about the room. The orchestra is composed in front of 26 small mirrors- That is 13 on each side with glass chandelier in front of each. When lighted the effect must be magnificent. The balcony extending entirely round this Palazzo commands some beautiful landscapes, but was long enough to be a fatiguing promenade in the then state of my legs. There is a marble staircase, having a fine effect, extending round through two staircases, leading the same way and forming circles
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    to the top. On our return we drove through, What was termed the Camp Harzo[?]- long avenues composed entirely of sycamore trees- which when covered with foliage, must produce a charming shade. The roads are fine here. I particularly noticed the unfortunate mules- Their masters seem to have no pity on these unfortunate beasts, which are the most forlorn, woe-begone looking creatures that one could well fancy. We then visited the Botanical Gardens, which really contained nothing that particularly pleased my eye. The collections may have been rare, but no flowers were in bloom, excepting a large number of camelias, and these I have seen in such luxuriance, that the bloom was not remarkable to me, And my botanical knowledge is too small to appreciate the collection of plants.
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    March 25 Friday I regret not to have been able to record on the spot; the impression produced by the matchless scenes presented to me on our excursion to-day to Baia. Passing again through the dark grotto of Pansilipo [Posilipo], we keep in view throughout our drive the lovely bay or bays formed by the various windings of the coast. First the island of Nisida, jutting out into or rather springing out of the sea crowned with the lazzantto bursts into view. A little further on the promontory of Miseno shows itself, and still further Cumae and Delia. These together with the island of Capri, isolating itself from the main-land and forming a centre piece between the extreme points of the "semicircular enclosure of the Bay, formed landscapes that vainly might artificial brush or colors seek to imitate. A short drive brought us to Pozzuoli,
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    (Puteoli), our approach to which was hailed by throngs of "Piccolo moneta excellenza" or Signora qual cosa." They seem to vie with each other in producing the loudest screams and noises, gesticulating and seeming to be in violent disputes. I felt confused and giddy. Numberless ciceroni assail you with importunities to employ them and as one is absolutely necessary unless you are already furnished with a guide, Father engaged one of these articles so with Pierre and the courier of our friends we formed a large cavalcade to explore these regions so celebrated by the muses- rendered so classical by Homer, by Virgil. At Pozzuoli are some imposing ruins of the temple of Jupiter Serapis Tr the depth of some feet they are filled in with water. We walked across planks through the different departments. Then remains the niche from
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    which was taken the colossal statue of Jupiter now at the Museum. At Pozzuoli is also the ruin of an amphitheatre, of considerable dimensions, and consisting of three stories. In the arena is a large opening in the centre by which the Animals were brought through a mechanical contrivance into this arena. This opening is surrounded by half a dozen others similar and a quarter of the size intended to give light to the lower apartments. Rows of seats, one above the others almost form a mountain around. I found our guides by no means well-informed and was obliged to depend on our friend "Murray" for all information. Leaving Puteoli we drove on to the Lucrine lake, which seemed, as it is, an enclosure from the sea, for what purpose I cannot imagine, It is now frequented by fishermen. We were obliged to have the carriages here in order to visit the lake of
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    Avernus. Just before us stood Monte Nuovo: its only claim to observation, the singular manner of its formation in the 15 century. An earthquake bringing together masses of tufa, pumice stone, lava and the various matters on the sea-shore. A little further advance brought us to the lake of Avernus, so celebrated in the Eanead [Aeneid] Here we entered into the Sybils' cave- to the light of torches, and as I turned back, could well understand the expression of "Darkness palpable." So dense, so black, a fitting entrance to the infernal abodes. Several chambers lead from the grotto, through one of these was the exit to the Acheron. This chamber is submerged several feet in water, and those who enter; in order to see some mosaic pavements beneath the water must do so on the backs of the guides. The excursion was undertaken by Father & Minny. Who were not repaid. The poetic celebrity of these places, is all their present charm. Retracing our steps partly on the
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    banks of Avernus, I observed what had an exact appearance of a beach, but which a near approach showed to consist of particles of pumice stone and lava floating on the water. Again "on voiture," every advance seemed to give a new and more beautiful view of these lovely bays. The day exquisite, and the blue sky reflected in the water gave to the latter the deepest azure tint. Baia is merely a few ruins- but merely a glance would not suffice for Baia. Its very ruins add to its beauty. The palace of Don Pedro di Toledo on the summit of rock. Capo Miseno, Cumae are all on one side, all projecting from different points and forming different bays. I think the bay of Baia will remain forever impressed upon my memory. Here are the ruins of three temples said to be, that o f Venus, a large octagonal remnant. Of Mercury, forming as it were a large semicircular niche;
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    and of Diana, several archways- and a circular temple, some suppose these to have been public baths. In the circular building some peasants wished to know if we desired to see them dance the "Tarentela." [Tarantella] We assented, and a woman with a tambourine and shrieking[?] voice seated herself on a remnant of rock, while a very ugly, large hipped woman and man corresponding in appearance commenced a most ungraceful motion, presently the man was turned off by Another woman. Altogether the Tarantela was either not adapted to the dancers or is a very ungraceful dance. I rather fancy the former the most probably. I regret my imagination or enthusiasm could not lend enchantment to the Scene. There were some chambers called of Venus, into which a light was carried to display on the upper part of the walls, some basso relievos, quite visible, but so defaced by smoke, that the subjects were barely definable. In one of these chambers a large petrified tree; forming a column
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    is quite curious. An inn[?] just by, furnished us with seats and a fine prospect, Pierre brought our basket of cakes, which we enjoyed. And Father and our lady friends, tasted the oysters for which this place is famed. A taste sufficed and more than sufficed. Some of the wine of the inn was procured to wash away its effect upon the palate, but this proved any thing but a palliative. So our cake, was the only resort. After luncheon we went for a promenade along the beach, picked up a few shells, and returned to the carriage. A little further advance brought us to Bauli, a small village, at which place we alighted, And at that moment were surrounded by children, shouting at the highest pitch of their voices for "una piccolo moneta". These afforded Mother infinite amusement. Every now and then she threw a handful of nuts from her pocket, and it would to tell
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    whether she or they enjoyed it most. They followed us all the way as we walked on to a ruin called "Cento Camerelle" or hundred little chambers It was formerly called the Prisons of Nero. but nothing definite is known of the purposes for which it was designed. A stairway leads down to some dark and intricate passages, through which you must be lighted. Some of our party descended. My curiosity did not impel me. Returning from it our guide conducted us into a room, where were collected multifarious little objects of Antiquity, genuine or not according to your credulity Father & Mother seemed to fancy some of these pieces, and which bore indelible impress of Antiquity. He may possibly succeed in obtaining them. We walked on a little further to visit the "Piscina Mirabilis". This is a reservoir, said to have been intended for the preservation of the water brought by the Julian Aqueduct, a distance of 50 miles, for the supply of the fleet.
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    It is truly a beautiful ruin and in a fine state of preservation. We entered into it through a flight of 40 steps- which lead to it on either side (descend into it I should say) One side is however closed upon. It is a vaulted roof- with five different compartments formed of Arches rather separated by them- All in a fine state of preservation. I am too lazy to set down a minute description. Retracing our steps, we turned off again in the direction of Cumae. In the plain below and dived [divided?] from it by the Mare Morto an enclosure from the Sea, is the site of the Elysian Fields, Now fields of grass, grain, Vineyards and to my seeming much barrenness, but when one has this Bay view, there must always be beauty. Here again the imagination must travel back to invest these grounds with the "idealitries" of the poet. If they ever really possessed the beauties ascribed to them. I am becoming too voluminous. Time, time.
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    On our return I observed more particularly the number of ruins that line this coast. All along this road are known to have been situated the Villas and palaces of Ciciro, Virgil, Lucullus, Caesar, Nero, Agrippima and various other celebrities. Many of them are dignified with these names, but no reliance can be placed on the authenticity of the sites; so unless you travel with your credulous cap- And excite enthusiasm to a pitch, half the pleasure is lost. March 26. Saturday. Truly a day of rest. This numbers 9 weeks since our loss. About 1. P.M. we all set out for a walk to the Royal Palace, situated on the "Largo Reale" not quite a mile from the Hotel. All the walking I have found in Naples abominable, except on the Villa Reale. The Grand Staircase I most admired in this building. It consist of flights of steps of white marble about two yards long each. The balustrade is
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    of carved marble, and at the side of the stairs, and on the descent are some very beautiful relievos in marble. Some of the apartments are very handsomely furnished, but have not made sufficient impression to transcribe. I regretted not to be able to visit the terraced garden. We went below to see the royal carriages, of which there are over 200, that is for all belonging to the royal household. One of the carriages is superb of gold and silver, the interior of white satin embroidered in gold- Of course I presume some brass-work. However Cinderella rose instantaneously to our minds. We returned home and the rest of this day passed rapidly and quietly. In the evening Miss Davis called to pay her respects. She is not altogether to my fancy. A lack of refinement is too apparent. March 27. A day in which I experienced the "dolce far niente," Skimmed our Eustace
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    Sunday. and Hillard. The rest having gone for a drive Tosh and I amused ourselves in watching the carriages, different liveries and appearance of the people as they passed along the "Chiaia." This evening Mrs. Owens & Tumbull came in to pass it with us. March 28. Monday. A little shopping excursion with Mrs. Prevost occupied us awhile after breakfast, then to the Museo Borbonico. where we had not yet visited the Picture galleries, and where I had anticipated little worth employing time with, so that entering first into the more ordinary department, we loitered and lingered over trifles, not dreaming of the treat in store and where I should so much have preferred passing those spare moments. Here among the "Capi d'Opera" I must recall some of those lovely Magdalens and Madonnas,"Madonna della Grazia" Raffaello, also by him "Madonna del divino Amore." Nothing can be imagined more truly divine than the expression of
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    These countenances. In the former the attitude of the Mother bending over the Child, the expression of holy love beaming from her eyes, and the work of simplicity so perfectly natural with which the child is regarding her are comparably beautiful and in no picture have struck me so blended. In the latter the cognomen does not belie the subject. The Elizabeth and St John represented in this are scarcely surpassed by the Virgin & Child. St Joseph stands in the back-ground. I dare not criticise and indeed if I would and could have no time. The Magdalen of Guereino, represented resting one arm on a book, and regarding a skull. "A Maddalena" of Titian. Lovely, She is represented in prayer and one might almost fancy the traces of weeping. Marriage of St Catherine of Correggio
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    By Correggio also the Zingarella or Madonna del Coniglio. Added to the grace and beauty of these pictures the colouring is so fresh rosy and beautiful that one is irresistably drawn to them. It derives its name, that is the latter from the turban a resemblance to that worn by the Gipsies and thus termed "Zingarella" of Coniglio from the rabbit introduced into the pictures. "St John the Baptist" by Guido. "Deposition from the cross." Rubens "An infant Christ," represented as an angel sleeping. Guido. A lovely landscape. The figures represent the nymph Egeria at the chase. It is laid among the environs of Rome. And please me more than any landscape I have yet seen by Claude Lorraine. The closing of the museum hurried us out before I had taken in the beauties of these "bijoux" In the other department, I was much pleased with some fruit and
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    vegetable pieces, Also market or rather kitchen scenes, in which a cow's or ox's head skinned is admirable. I could not discover the name of the artist. Another little picture by David Teniers representing the interior of a public house. A picture of St Jerome extracting a thorn from the foot of a lion. He is in his study and every object around is perfectly represented. The lion is a noble Animal and the patience and I may say grandeur of expression of the head shows the fine [con...?] of the artist. It is attributed to Colantonio del Fiore by some to Van-Eyck. About 4 1/2 P.M. a charming drive along the Chiaia into the quarter of Mergellina and thence along the sea-shore to the village of Bagnoli. All along the road is bordered by Villas and terraced gardens, and winds round the steep rocky hill of Pansilippo. Vesuvius is
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    from here viewed to the greatest advantage. It sweeps down to the sea by a most graceful curve, and Monte Somma on the other side of it seems truly to form a part of this whole and complete the curve on the other side. As we returned the lowering sun cast a light-golden veil over it, extending itself to the numerous villages around the base and just reaching the surface of the bay; gradually the golden tint deepened into a rich purple every object around seeming to partake of this magic hue. A scene to be forever impressed on the memory. March 29. Tuesday. This morning passed idly, glanced over Eustace and whatever guide books lay about. Collected all our odds and ends into their squeezing places. Our folks scattered here and there on different shopping expeditions &c. By 2. P.M. all ready for our departure, carriages at the door. Our chamber maid
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    who has been exceedingly attentive evinced an excessive degree of gratitude when the ladies and ourselves presented her with a "buona mano", kissing our hands and wishing us a "Buon 'viaggio signora, grazia' cellenza[?]." A real kind hearted attentive creature she proved herself too. Not a very long drive brought us to the moorings of our steamer. We were ferried over to it, but some rather high waves, gave a tossing to our boat which sent it from side to side and my weak head was made pretty dizzy when I reached the stairs of ascent. On board found a large party of friends, which spread a cheerful prospect and caused us to look forward to two days of at least tolerable sea-voyage. The Cubans came to bid us adieu, as it was something of a sacrifice to break in upon a day of sight-seeing and row to us, it was an attention to be appreciated. Steamer crowded, every sofa in
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    saloon engaged. Our state-room, best in the ship, with berths for six and a narrow sofa, which I appropriated to myself. Accommodation to congratulate ourselves upon from the usual state of these Mediterranean Steamers. Evening gave every promise for a continuation of pleasant weather, We left just as the Sun was losing its meridian force, and as the boat gradually widened the distance between us and the shores a lovelier prospect could hardly have presented itself. Naples then gives an outline of its magnitude, on three sides of us masses of houses filled the tops of the surrounding hills of Vesuvius. And shores of this Magnificent. One village linking to another and this forming this long chain of habitations. A veritable Italian sun-set, gilded the whole scene, Vesuvius and Massa, the summit of the former sending forth its golden volumes of smoke and looking so calm and beautiful that one could hardly fancy the treachery that lurks within.
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    At five dinner was announced and as that is a sound on ship-board by no means charming to me, I had the opportunity of viewing what was well worth the renunciation of a meal. Mrs Owen and myself remained together. Nisida on one side showed itself to considerable advantage. A little farther on Procida approached nearly to us. And two peaked mountains upon which the setting sun shone to peculiar advantage added their charms to the view of Procida. Then the land began to lessen to our view. The sun sunk not into the sea but into a little purple cloud, such a speck that one could hardly fancy all the blustering weather therein contained. A fresh breeze sent some of us in the saloon. The rest braved it on deck. I found a nice library then, several persons amusing themselves therewith. And all around looking cheerful and pleasant. I read Hillard aloud to Mrs Prevost until the rest of our party came in, which
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    made too much clamor for much else. Between nine and ten dispersed for bed. And awaked next morning to find ourselves at Civita Vecchia. March 30 Wednesday. Rose early and went on deck. Such a prospect. Black skies high winds, and nothing but Oh! and Alas! But few persons were to land here, and these had a pretty tough time, the boats seemed to mount on the wave and again sink under them seeming as though they would never return. A heavy, steady rain set in. During intervals of intermission passengers came on board, surely an undertaking to regain a brave determination. Amongst others a Russian Prince & Princess child & Servants. She was extremely ill when she reached the boat and there was not even a berth to give her. The Captain finally gave up his And in the course of the night there were rumors of her having given birth to an heir or heiress. Elaborate preparations were made during the laying of dinner table for the approaching roughness- which unfortunately proved by no means useless. About 4 1/2 P.M.
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    we got up steam and were off. And by the time dinner was served there were few left to partake of its dainties. I trust never again to pass so miserable a night. It was as much as I could manage to do to balance myself on my sofa. My head almost bursting. The wind blew as I never before heard it, and tossed the boat and tossed our insides. I suffered much from nausea, but could find no relief. We were fortunately at no great distance from Elba, the wind however by the time we reached the harbor seemed to abate, and the captain hoped to be able to proceed but after attempting it for a short time, he seemed to consider it most advisable to turn back and lay quietly under the sheltering haven of Elba. As usual on such occasion, assents and dissents prevailing. This was about 1. A.M. and here we remained until the next evening 7. P.M. March 31. Thursday. About mid-day I tried to dress myself and mix among the crowd but felt too ill from the
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    effects of the night and was obliged to seek the disagreeable berth again. Every now and then some one popping in upon me. I was glad to hear the announcement of our departure, notwithstanding the many pleasant passengers- A strong wind still caused a considerable swell and the saloon was not long before it was exhausted of its occupants, except the sleepers who formed enough to more than occupy it, for the ship was truly over-crowded. April 1. Friday. Long before morning dawn we were quickly under shelter of Leghorn harbor and by 7 A.M. had quietly rowed to shore, and were at the hotel Victoria &[?] Washington which had left such pleasant remembrances- And where we were welcomed, then refreshed ourselves and were furnished with a comfortable breakfast. 11 1/2 A.M. on the cars for Florence, a mode of travel much more suited to my taste and I never should care to take another trip on the Meditterranean [Mediterranean]. Pleasant company were in our carriage
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    a scotch navy captain and his wife and Mr Lawson, all too much fatigued to exert their powers of conversation to the utmost. Florence. The approach to this city pleased me much, many villas and country houses, gardens &c. Indeed the whole route proved care and cultivation. Drove up to the Gran Bretagna Hotel. Which is pleasantly situated on Lung 'Arno [Lungarno]. Comfortably accommodated. Many, many letters from home, from sympathizing friends. Little as our angel brother had been among them his rare virtues could not fail in making themselves known. What consolation in that heavenly inspiration implanted within us of a future and inseparable union, with that dearest One! April 2. Saturday. A comfortable looking clean breakfast table greeted me on my appearance in the parlor this morning. After prayers went out for a walk and being just at the entrance of the Uffizi gallery entered into this celebrated building.
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    I must reserve to myself a more minute description but another occasion when I feel less weary. I devoted nearly 2 hours to the Tribune. Here are the rarest gems. The Venus de' Medici. I must confess to a strong feeling of disappointment as the first impression made by this celebrated piece. After contemplation the Grace of form, the perfect contour of every limb, the beautiful and expressive countenance gradually unfold themselves to you. But it must certainly require a far keener appreciation of the art than mine to discover in it that perfection so universally allowed. There are three other pieces of statuary in this room which required no artists eye to deserve their superiority, These are The Apollino, a very graceful figure, the history I do not know. The Dancing Fawn, a work not pleasing to my eye, but evincing even to an ordinary eye extraordinary merit. The foot pressing the musical instrument seems to have every muscle in motion. The Lottatore or Wrestlers. A most
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    intricate piece of work: one of the wrestlers is on the ground, the other has brought him down, and stoops over him. L'Arrotino, or the slave sharpening his knife. The head and expression of countenance of this figure is remarkably fine. You can well discern the look of surprise or distracted attention. Around the walls of this circular and beautiful (of which however I had no time to examine) hang some of the most choice paintings in the world. Amongst these are of Raffaello. The Madonna del Cardellino or of the Gold-finch from one of these being introduced perched upon the hand of the child St. John. St John preaching in the Desert. He is represented as a youth. A striking picture and requires no artist's eye to discover its beauties. Fornarina. A portrait of a female, the colour of this picture is rich and glowing
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    but it is not so pleasing a picture as the one bearing same name in the Barberino gallery in Rome. Several others are here by this celebrated painter but I am now even too minute. Of Michael Angelo whose paintings are so rare there is one in this room, said to be of exceeding merit representing the Virgin presenting the infant to St Joseph- The countenance and head of the latter struck me at a glance as wonderfully beautiful. There is little of divinity in the expression of either Virgin or Child, but the position of all the figures and their grace and naturalness would attract even an ordinary eye. Amongst those of Titian was a Venus reposing, holding flowers in one hand, Cupid fondling her head, and a little dog at her feet. This picture is glowing with richness of tint. And the countenance of the Venus was particularly beautiful and expressive of a vain woman conscious of her charms. This room contains so much of interest
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    that it is confusing to recall them. Correggio is much to my taste: the richness and beauty of his pictures cannot fail to elicit admiration. In none others have I seen him equalled in his glowing tints. There are not many of his to be seen. One represents the Virgin kneeling in adoration before the infant Jesus, who is lying on part of her drapery. This must be a fair specimen of the excellences of this artist. An English lady was taking a copy and kindly entered into some of its merits with me. Another of his is the Head of John the Baptist in the charger. Herodias receiving the Head of John the Baptist just below this was a very beautiful picture. I have forgotten the artist. One of Guido's in this room has all the charm peculiar to this artist. It is a female figure, portrait, in contemplation. A beautiful picture of a Sybil
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    by Guereino. The head-dress is exceedingly graceful, and particularly suited to this style of painting. I shall reserve for another visit what others I should like to remember and refer to me. My comprehension is too slow to take in so many beauties in a few hours. The closing of the gallery at 3[?] P. M. sent us winding our way through the streets of Florence. Palazzo Vecchio is just at the side of the gallery a massive edifice, not noble, the pillars are handsome. I only gave a cursory glance around. A short distance brought us in front of the Cathedral, and enormous pile of building of different colored marbles, black and white prevailing, but which requires distance to show its grandeur to advantage. The dome is said to have been the model for St Peter's and was the admiration of Michael Angelo. The campanile or bell tower stands at the side of the Cathedral rising several hundred feet, and giving a fine effect. Nearby stands the Baptistery
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    ornamented with the celebrated bronze doors. Two by Ghiberti and one by Andrea Pisano. The two former were said by Michael-Angelo to be worthy of being the gates of Paradise. I really did not observe any of the minutia of these buildings. saw but the whole and not a single part. The streets of Florence formed a pleasing contrast to what I had been accustomed to in the other cities of Italy. Much more cleanly, wider and many of them with side walks. While we were at the door of a cafe waiting to regale ourselves with some cake for lunch, a woman came up and insisted most gracefully, on our each receiving a bouquet, without waiting for a remuneration. I understand that these flower girls (she certainly deserves the apellation [appellation] of woman) take you under their supervision, certain families, and whenever they leave their hotels find them out and supply them with flowers. They never fail in discovering when
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    you take your departure, and then await the recompense of their bounty. Went into a few of the stores looking at the pretties. Gilt work is here seen in perfection and exceedingly reasonable. Being Saturday of course made no purchases. At the "table d'hote" found the Troy[?] bride her husband and nephew and Mr Twells. Only two strangers were there, thus we almost formed entirely a large party of friends. April 3 Sunday. The weather is cold, but clear and bracing, just enough so to do away with the enervating effects of the Neapolitan sun. About 12. M. two nice carriages were prepared for us, and took a beautiful drive to Fiesole. The view from the summit of the hill commands a considerable distance. A wide extent of surrounding country. And what a beautiful country! All so fresh and green, clothing herself in her spring dress. Villas succeeded each other with astonishing rapidity during out drive but the hour chosen for our ascent was
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    unpropitious as the haziness of the sun obstructed the view. Fiesole is widely spread over the surrounding hills and is said to contain abut three thousand inhabitants. On the summit of a hill, called "Bella Veduta" and from whence in fact the finest prospects are obtained, is a monastery, built on the ruins of Etruscan fortress (Fiesole was a very Ancient Etruscan city). It is a Monastery of Franciscans. Father and Randolph only were allowed to enter. Women must not pollute these holy sanctuaries. The only inducement to enter, the fine prospects from the windows. Near this is a cathedral built on the ruins of a temple of Bacchus. Drive then to the "Poggio Imperiale" A long and stately avenue of Cypresses and evergreen oaks leading to the villa of the Grand duke. We entered into the Casino and raced through it, taking time only to examine some very beautiful cabinets of Florentine mosaics, made in
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    the days of the Medici; and a most perfect little piece of statuary, Apollo, said to be by Phidias. Moses, a little counterpart of the one in Rome by Michael Angelo, whether this is by the same is a very doubtful matter. Intending another visit here with our friends, hurried off to drive on the Cascine, walks beautifully laid out and planted with avenues of trees. Portable counters of nuts and cakes with fire[?] ovens and dough, where fresh cakes were manufactured at a moments order, flower girls and men, inhabitants of Firenze la Bella of every condition, the wealthiest vieing with each other in the beauty of their equipages, their dress and liveries, the peasants with their enormous Hats of straw hanging on the backs of their necks most ungracefully, escorted by their beaus[?], military men, every variety of the human race, were collected on these grounds and when the music struck up in one part of the
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    grounds the scene was indescribably animating. These walks extend to considerable distance. We were obliged to return by 5 P. M. And thus were obliged to leave at the hour to see it in the brightest colors. and before having an opportunity of forming an idea of its extent. Firenze at this early impression strikes me most favorably and more than realizes my anticipations. April 4. Monday. A little shopping this morning rather fatigued me and tended rather to lessen the pleasure afforded by another visit to the Uffizi Gallery. Visited rooms appropriated to the several schools of painting. I cannot pretend to enumerate even those that pleased me except a very few. In a room opening from the [illegible] is a remarkable Head of Medusa, snakes seem absolutely crawling from it and she exhales venom from her mouth. This is by Leonardo da Vinci.
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    In a room leading form the western side of the gallery are some few that remain impressed on my memory, rooms I should say, among them are a "Madonna addolorata by Sassoferrato, "Mary Magdalen", Carlo Dolci, The best I have seen by this painter. The Flora by Titian, although I cannot see what entitles her to this designation, except it be a few flowers she holds in her hand. The countenance is sad, mournful and no[?] means in unison with the levity, brightness I should say one would expect to meet in a Flora. In another room are the portraits of most of the celebrated painters, painted generally by themselves. Another room contains two remarkably fine portraits by Titian. Francesco Maria della Rovere, Duke of Urbino and Eleanor his wife. In the Hall of Niobe is the celebrated group, (not grouped) of Niobe and her seventeen children. The mother, a grand figure, tightly grasped by the
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    arm by the youngest of her children is the first and most striking object that fixes the attention of the visitor. Her drapery hangs most gracefully. And the unutterable anguish expressed in her countenance is almost human in its truthfulness. The attitudes of the other figures are mostly theatrical and studied; perhaps in the grouping their positions may have required such gesticulatory postures, but I could not find my admiration elicited by them. In this room was a beautiful and expressive picture by Titian. "A Sybil". by some this is called the "Blue Nun". At the end of the Western gallery are some pieces of sculpture by Michael Angelo A Bacchus and Faun, with quite a little history attached to it. A rounded Adonis, There is a fine David by Donatello. As usual I was by no means satisfied. As I saw around me so much calculated to awaken eyes and
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    senses, and I felt that some weeks were required to examine and lounge over this collection. I like to feel myself at ease in these places, not cast a hurried glance. It was nearly the hour for closing, so we "vamoosed" into the street and after walking as far as the Cathedral, which was closed, took a carriage and drove to church of San Marco, where I saw little to excite interest. A crucifix painted in wood with a gold ground by Giotto, and which is said to have drawn crowds to view it when first painted, and established the artist's reputation, hangs over the entrance door. Church of the Annunziata. On entering the church, the effect is quite brilliant from the stained glass windows and bright gilding and painting of the roof of the nave. The painting by Il Volterrano. The same artist assisted by his pupil Ulivelli painted the cupola, which particularly attracted my attention. As far as I
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    could make out, it is a representation of a number of the events recorded in the old and new testament The high alter, attributed by some to Leonardo da Vinci, by others to Alberti, has a front of Silver, above it is a large silver tabernacle, very massive. There is a chapel in this church built by Pietro dei Medici in which is a painting of the Head of Christ by Andrea del Sarto; very beautiful. Church of Santa-Croce. Here are laid all the great men of Florence, the famed names of Italy. Here repose Michael Angelo [Michelangelo], Macchiavelli, Galileo, Alfieri, whose monument by Canova is a beautiful piece of work. Lanzi, who wrote "Lives of the Painters, Leonardo Bruni, surnamed Antonio are also laid here. In one of the chapels is a monument erected to Countess Zamojska, by Bartolini. The countenance, position, figure and dress are unsurpassed.
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    While we were in this church the son of the Grand Duke, Prince Charles, [probably referring to Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria, son of Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany] came in to examine the design of the facade of the church, which is being newly restored, and which was set up for his inspection. He is a modest looking youth and our formidable party seemed to claim more of his attention than the design. I saw many more objects to-day which elicited my admiration and gave me pleasure, but so much is confusing and they will not single themselves to my mind, besides, it is late, I am sleepy and tired, company all the evening in our parlor prevented my notes. April 5 Tuesday I feel very sad and miserable to-day. A pain in my chest, slight cold I presume detains me at home. Mr Darter and his daughter called. He is absolutely disagreeable to me, and I am by no means prepossed [prepossessed?]
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    in her favor. There is a lack of heart-refinement about them, which I feel and yet cannot accuse them of. Letters from home, only bring our great loss more appallingly to my view. To-day I feel hopelessly miserable, to-day I have time to think. Mr Boyd did indeed love him. His letter speaks his grief. A noble soul, as my Angel brother's, was alone capable of such friendships. April 6. Wednesday A head ache kept me in bed all day. A lost day neither able to read, move or think. April 7 Thursday. First visited a mosaic factory, How unfortunate in the choice of the day as the workmen were not employed and I could not understand the process well. In the exhibition room are some exquisite samples. I think shells and conchs are more perfect now[?] than the flowers. Saw many of the varieties of stones employed in the fabrication. Among those most employed are
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    chalcedon, Sicilian jasper, agate and many varieties of precious stones. Many of the works were in preparation for the Medici chapel in San Lorenzo. The Accademia delle belle arti" contains some paintings which may be fine, but as we only ran through, without a catalogue or hardly a glance, I certainly cannot recall what I saw. In the court is a half finished statue of St Matthew by Michael Angelo, the traces of the Master hand visible even in the first rude[?] touches. The Pitti Palace, where my anticipations were more than realised. Hurried off to the first room, and with merely a glance at the frescoes which are by Pietro da Cortona and must be reserved for another visit regaled myself with the surrounding beauties. This room is called from the frescoes the Hall of Venus. Amongst the paintings that struck me most are two very beautiful landscapes
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    sea views by Salvator Rosa. A landscape representing peasants returning from labor, the figures so natural and life-like, and colouring so fresh that it needs no second glance to show the genius that produced it. A woman of graceful carriage and fine form, the dress rich and most carefully painted called la "Bella di Tiziano" said to be Titian's Mistress, Marriage of St Catharine also by Titian. In the Hall of Apollo, called also from the frescoes are firstly, several by the incomparable Raffaello. Pope Leo X with two Cardinals, Portraits of Maddalena Doni and her husband Angiolo, the latter intimate friend of Raffaello. Two Holy families, that is confined merely to the Mother and Child of Murillo- exquisite paintings. A Magdalen by Titian, she is enveloped in her rich golden hair, the painting is rich and splendid
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    in coloring. A portrait of Rembrandt by himself. Here is also the loveliest most life like picture of a child, Prince Leopold, afterwards Cardinal dei Medici by Tiberio Tito. A Magdalen by Perugino. In the Hall of Wars, the celebrated Madonna della Seggiola of Raffaello, none of the innumerable copies I have seen do it justice. Also by the same Madonna dell'Impannata. A St Peter by Guido, richer in coloring and differing from his usual style. By the same, Rebecca at the Well. A very beautiful Judith and Hollofernes head, by Alloris the painting and the woman is beautiful, but no passion is expressed in her countenance. By Rubins a picture representing himself, his brother and the two philosophers Grotius and Lipsius. Hall of Jupiter. Three Fates by Michael Angelo only the second I have seen by him.
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    A fine, I may say colossal statue of St Mark by Fra Bartolommeo. Conspiracy of Cataline, Salvator Rosa. Hall of Saturn. Here are a choice collection of Raffaello's, Madonna del Baldacchino, Pope Julius II. Portrait of Tommasso Fedra Inghirami, Vision of Ezekiel, small but very beautiful. Perugino to me, closely assimilate to each other. There is a descent from the Cross by him before which both mother and myself exclaimed, that is Raffaello. In the Hall of the Illiad, the collection is also striking, but I had become exceedingly weary and cannot recall them with justice. A walk in the Boboli Gardens, which just adjoin the Palace Pitti. and which are open to the public only on Thursdays and Sundays. These gardens consist principally of shady trimmed walks, adorned with statuary and fountains. At the entrance is a grotto formed
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    principally of cork and containing, three unfinished statues of Michael Angelo. I had forgotten to mention the Venus of Canova in a room specially appropriated to her in the Pitti palace. I am too tired to trust myself to a remark. To drive to the Cascine where was music and the usual crowd, arrived at the hotel barely in time for the mantua maker to try our dresses and be ready for dinner at 6 1/2 P.M. Our scotch railroad friends driving on the cascine with friend Darter and daughter. April 8 Friday. After traversing many streets with Mother, more to have an idea of the city than any purchases absolutely necessary. I found my way about by means of inquiries, and as the streets were crowded with men, I fancy Mother felt rather loath to trust herself to my guidance. Very much fatigued reached Hotel and found a few lines from father stating
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    inability to accompany us on any excursion, so we hastened to pass the morning in Pitti Palace. Examined more leisurely this choice collection and the beautiful frescoes of the ceilings. I had now an opportunity of proving, how much enhanced the beauties of these paintings are and how many new points of admiration discover themselves to you by repeated visit. In the Hall dei Pitti is a landscape by Salvator Rosa, representing Diogenes throwing away the cup out of which he was drinking, because he sees a peasant drinking from his hand. It is called "[... dei ...]" Another large landscape hanging just opposite, by same, struck me as more beautiful. I cannot pretend to enumerate the pictures in this gallery that pleased me or I should compose a catalogue. Carlo Dolce [Dolci?], however who seems highly esteemed, is by no means to
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    my taste. A sea green caste pervades all his pictures, and the expression of the countenances of many of his figures seems to partake of the character of his name. We did not leave the gallery until it closed at 3 P.M. and we were forced to comply with the rules walked home with Mr [Tevells?] and again went out with Ellen to make a purchase of pair of alabaster vases, pitchers rather, there met Father, who supplied himself with like articles. Feel it good to rest. Many letters from home. April 9. Saturday. After prayers walked to Duomo and Baptistery. The latter within is much resembling the Pantheon in form contains little of interest within, Outside are the famous bronze doors. As we entered, a party entered with us, with an infant to be baptised, interesting ceremony we waited to see
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    performed. The little thing had multifarious prayers muttered over it, the consecrated wafer put into its mouth, and lastly a mixture of warm and cold water dashed over its face- during which operation it behaved to admiration. Crossed over to the Cathedral, where I only gave a glance round, not taking time to read Murray and note what was worthy of note. The small stained glass windows struck me as being very rich and beautiful and cast a gloomy but at the same time a religious shade in the edifice. The dome from within had truly a grand effect. The corpse of a priest was lying in state in the cathedral, the funeral service having just been performed. Singular in these two buildings directly opposite from one moment to the next, the extremes of human life should be so presented to us.
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    Then proceeded to church of San Lorenzo, to visit Medici chapel, it is still in process of construction, ornamentation I should say. There are some magnificent marbles, and the paintings on the dome representing The Creation of Adam & Eve, Deluge, Crucifixion &c, are very bright and fresh looking, but requiring too much of a neck stretch and even then no possibility of forming a clear conception of the work. Walked from here to Palazzo Vecchio a building constructed in 15th century for Gonfalini[?] (Government officers) of Florence, afterwards employed as Palace by the Medici, now used for government offices. In the sala d'Udienza are some frescoes really worth visiting by Vasari. The Hall by some considered largest in Europe. (Much doubt it) and the frescoes cover the walls. They represent battles of Siena, Pisa and Marciano. In the latter the dwarf of Cosimo I. Medici
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    is represented dressed in armor, leading on the army by the light of lanterns, resembling small balloons and torches. The facts of these paintings are said to be very true to history. The ceiling is painted in oil representing events in the life of Cosimo I. In this Hall are some fine pieces of statuary by Bandinelli, an unfinished piece, representing allegorically, Vice triumphing over Virtue, and giving every evidence of a master style by Michael Angelo [Michelangelo]. Several other pieces in this room, to my inexperienced eye, seemed in muscular action, formation of limbs, grace, &c, &c worthy of being ranked among the finest pieces of workmanship. In one of the upper rooms, was a whole altar service made of opaque amber and clear amber. Some beautiful pieces of carving in ivory, three or four of the figures
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    are by Benvenuto Cellini. Very nearby is the Uffizi Gallery where I had a charming repost of two or three hours, all of which time or nearly all I passed in the Tribune, viewing what I before had merely glanced at. Among other paintings a very delicate, finely colored one, representing Horodias receiving the Head of St John, by Luini pleased me much. A Holy family by Correggio is very rich in coloring. I should like to live in a place where such a resource was always at hand for charming away the evil spirit. Truly the [illegible] Florentines should be grateful for the boon. Left Father in a mosaic store with the crowd, looking at the pretties. Hardly at home, before the Misses Merle[?] and brother called &c, &c. Our friends just come in from a trip to Pisa, where they had been
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    on an excursion with Mr Darter and daughter. April 10. Sunday. Have just finished some letters home- and after packing my valise expect a day of leisure. Took a short drive with intention of ascending Hill of Bello Sguardo, but the carriage was too heavy, and not feeling well I would not go on foot- which Randolph and Toshy accomplished. In the evening held quite a levee having more than a dozen visitors- considerable muster for a strange place. April 11. Monday Adieu Florence! Fantasy of so many of my dreams. She has indeed chosen her seat amidst the richest and grandest sites of the Italy I have yet visited. Surrounded all sides by hills and mountains these embowered by the greenest and richest shrubbery and covered with villas, giving a glimpse within of rural charms, which we would have explored with time at command,
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    could hardly have caused a moments' disappointment. We left Florence in the midst of a pouring rain, which continued during the day. The mist and clouds have provokingly deprived us of what is considered the most magnificent scenery in Italy. Every here and there an opening disclosed to us what we were losing. The whole road to Bologna lays over some of the steepest summits of the Appenines [Apennines]. The roads are fine- in many places we were obliged to have oxen added to our team. The little beggar children invariably followed the diligence while we were ascending the mountains, having an opportunity of following and continuing their importunities all the way up, on account of our slow progress. They amused mother and all of us. She was continually throwing confetti to them, for which they would return again and again. Bologna We arrived at Bologna about 8. P.M. much to my delight as I was feeling quite unwell.
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    drove to Hotel San-Marco, where a clean comfortable bed proved our efficacious medicine. April 12. Tuesday Bologna. At breakfast by 8. A. M. this morning in order to be early on our excursionising expedition, Mr Twells of Phil- having joined our party, we occupied two carriages exclusive of Pierre and the courier. Immediately after started out. The appearance of Bologna is peculiar owing to the areas which are built throughout most of the streets and serve as a protection from rain and sun. Though cleaner than many of the Italian cities it has a gloomy and dismal appearance and the inhabitants struck me as being very plain in looks. First visited church of St something which contained nothing of interest. I do not even remember the name. On our way there passed the two leaning towers, one high and surmounted by an observatory. The other low, ugly and dangerous looking, they are built of bricks and at the same time San Petronius
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    have a [illegible] and unfinished appearance. The cathedral in no way remarkable. The only attractive object was a fresco by Ludovico Caracci [Carracci]. There are said to be several fine paintings there, but they were all covered. Church of San Domenico. This was the most interesting of all. The tomb of the Saint to whom the church is dedicated and whose dust lays there, is the most magnificent piece of work of the kind I have ever seen. It is of pyramidal form. The sarcophagus is adorned with figures in alto and basso relievo of finest workmanship by Niccolo Pisano. The lower range are a class of smaller figures of delicate workmanship by Alfonso Lombardo [Lombardi]- It is surmounted by larger sized figures, two of which are said to be by Michael Angelo. One an Angel with the loveliest, truly most angelic face I ever saw represented in marble, The other a figure of San Petronio. Above this tomb the dome or ceiling is frescoed by Guido representing the reception of the Saint into Paradise by Mary and Christ. A seraphic
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    choir below. The paintings in the dome pleased me. I do not remember who by- A painting in this chapel by Lionello di Spada The burning of the sacred books, seemed to me worthy of being classed among the finest. Several paintings here are note-worthy but I have not time to remember them and as to day have been obliged to swallow so many fine ones, I cannot digest or remember but a very few. The Accademia delle belle Arti contains a most choice collection, I dare scarcely commence to enumerate the notables. Notre-dame della Pieta by Guido is the wonder of the collection. It occupies nearly the entire side of the room and represents the Madonna over the dead body of Christ and two angels above. Below the city of Bologna and the S S. Borromeo, Petronis [Petroni?], Dominico, Francesco d'Assisi and Proclus. The Massacre of the Innocents by same is a masterpiece. The different expressions on the faces of the mothers, and two dead children in the front are most life-like.
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    In this collection are many by the Caracci [Carracci]. Ludovico's are masterly and glowing. Those of Annibale are delicate and I think more beautiful. One of Ludovico's a Virgin and Child adored by the S.S. Francis and Jerome struck me as very peculiarly beautiful. The halo cast over the Virgin is of such a peculiar shade of coloring, as indeed that of the whole picture that one might pass it over as not worthy of notice. A few moments' attention brings out its beauties- The Virgin's countenance, her position and manner of holding the infant, the infant itself were most gracefully represented. A crucifixion, St John and Mary Magdalene by Guido Reni. I am too tired to recall others. Visited a palace with pictures of the owner for sale. By no means a fine collection. When we entered the carriage, as the driver was about returning, down came the horses, and it seemed as though
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    the carriage was down too- we soon made our escape from it. After raising them and taking a turn entered again. I preferred a seat in the other carriage. Mr Twells being seated with the driver had a narrow escape. Our drive outside the walls gave some fine panoramas of the surrounding county. Ascended to the hill of San Michele in Boschetto, where the Pope has a palace. I was surprised to find Bologna situated on so perfect a level, which seems to extend almost to the Adriatic, The county throughout the drive so fresh, green and beautiful. Added to the charm of situation were the charms of Spring overdue. The Palace has a little chapel adjoining which is a perfect gem. One little chapel is beautifully frescoed. I am too tired to recall too anxious to go to bed. And Mr T. is talking. In the Garden are a large collection of fine camelias.- and geraniums
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    From all round are views of Bologna on one side- the hills each crowned with a villa, a fine castle on the other- From here we drove to the Campo Santo which is more on the plan of the Havanna cemeteries, than any others I have seen. It is like a Columbarium where the bodies are deposited in cavities in the wall, which are afterwards closed up. I saw a magnificent monument there erected to Elisa, sister of Bonaparte, wife of Count Bacciocchi. In the church of San Domenico Guido Reni and his celebrated scholar Elisabetta Sirani repose. I have omitted a word to the recollection of the picture that gave me the greatest pleasure. The ecstasy of Sta Cecilia, she is represented as wrapt in holy rapture produced by a choir of angels. It is by Raffaello. The Sta Cecilia is truly seraphic in the expression of her countenance. This painting is in the "Accademia",
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    Merely entered the Zambeccari palace- where was a very large collection of paintings- but the darkness of evening only allowed a run round. A fine one by Ludovico Caracci [Carracci]- brilliant in the colors- Jacob's dream- in which he is represented as a handsome youth sleeping- the stone under his head. The vision of the Angels descending the ladder appearing to him- Ludovico's master-pieces I think must be all collected in Bologna for no where else, have I, as yet, seen any of his works that pleased me- In the Palace of the Pope on the "Monte Michele in Bosco" I observed to the Custode, (who by the way was himself an excellent artist) how far superior was the view from the window where we were then standing, than a fine landscape he had been showing us- "Ah si signora, ni Guido, ni Raffaello- have painted
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    equal to that great master. April 13 Wednesday. Rose early - took coffee and started from here in the diligence by 7 A.M. The morning cool and not too bright gave promise of an agreeable drive- the diligence too more comfortable than any I had before travelled in- The scenery although presenting none of the grandeur that characterised our drive to Bologna, was yet so peaceful and tranquil- the country bright, fresh looking and luxuriant- covered with vineyards- The vine is trained through out to Mulberry trees, which are just beginning to bloom. And in this part of the country I believe silk is quite an important manufacture- planted between are now vats, now wheat- and various kinds of vegetables or grains, so that none of the ground is lost- And at this season the road seemed an entire carpet of verdure- Passed through several fields of rice-
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    Modena was among the first of our stopping places, relays- a drive through, did not give a prepossessing idea of this city. About an hour and a half's drive from Mantua, obliged to cross the Po in a flat, not like those at home, but planks laid on boats and drawn across by [illegible] attached to pulleys at either side of the shore- We descended from the coach, and as were kept nearly half-hour waiting on the various wagons and teams which had just come across from other side, amused ourselves by walking about and talking to the groups of peasants collected about- The mottly crowd around was food enough to amuse one a longer while- The evening lovely truly spring-like and just the choice hour of day- 5 1/2 P.M. We crossed at last however, a sort of break-neck attempt to avoid being
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    trodden under the horses heels, for these affairs seem rather intended for beasts & vehicles than men. The Po has not much beauty to recommend it and owed its picturesqueness this evening to the weather; season and hour- Mantua Reached Mantua about 8. P.M. After long delays from Passports and baggage examinations- The former indeed both a nuisance throughout whole journey- drove up to a miserable hotel, to my thinking- best I believe town affords- hungry. And no good bread wherewith to satisfy appetite- And I think we were all well pleased to find that our journey on to Milan might be continued at 11 1/2 P.M. by railway- Left the house accordingly at 10 1/4 and did not reach depot till 11. as it is much beyond city- Mantua being situated on Mincius and sided by three lakes. We were all sleepy and having
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    comfortable cars had a night rest- A bright moon-light might have afforded some interesting views but leaden weights were attached to our eyes. April 14. Thursday Milan Arrived in Milan at 8. A.M. The first prospect a cheering one- The city looked unusually airy, bright and fresh for Italy- and remarkable degree of cleanliness pervaded the streets- which are broad and filled with large good looking houses. Drove up to the Hotel de la Ville- so-so- not comparable to Florence and Naples- but quite a luxury to get refreshed and have a comfortable breakfast. All the party except myself, left the house at 12. 16- to commence excursionising - Fatigue- without refreshment would have spoiled my pleasure in the most interesting object- so I fear I subjected them to inconvenience in returning for me an hour after
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    Drove to the Brera Gallery- where are very large and I may say motley collection of pictures, which would however have given me infinite satisfaction to leisurely examine- but the haste to have the labor over, was so great that I felt it too much self-indulgence to rest over those that pleased me. The gem to-day was the Sposalizio of the Madonna by Raphael. A remarkable piece of foreshortening was a dead Christ, the two Mary's weeping at his side- Painted in distemper by Andrea Mantegna. A very touching and beautiful picture of Abraham dismissing Hagar by Guereino. Instituting of Lord's supper- Rubens. Visited afterwards church of Santa Marie Delle Grazie- In the refectory of the Ancient Monastery belonging to this church is the celebrated Cenacolo or Lord's supper of Leonardo da Vinci. Many of the figures are defaced
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    so that the first glance was one of exceeding disappointment- but the figures grow upon one- yet its celebrity is beyond my powers of appreciation. The head of Christ is very beautiful. Visited several churches but am too tired and sleepy to note them down. The Cathedral I was most agreeably surprised and impressed with. Its various pinnacles and figures all of pure marble- and forming a fret-work of ornamentation- on so immense a scale, is what I hardly anticipated. April 15 Friday. After an early breakfast, started on foot to the cathedral, the "coup- d'oeil" on a first entrance is truly grand. The vaulted roof- which we all at first supposed elaborate carving in wood-work, is but painting and nothing can be more deceptive, except that the paint in some places is a little worn off. I could hardly have brought my credulity
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    to bear upon it. Fifty two large clustered pillars form the nave and aisles- and the whole is grand and imposing in effect- Some of the painted windows are superb. Three of immense dimensions, and painted with various biblical incidents, constitute the entire back of the tribune. There are also several others, the brightness of the coloring alone would constitute their beauty, did they not possess the additional attraction of fine paints. Ascended to the roof which is the only means of obtaining an accurate idea of the minute work in the exterior. It is made to imitate a botanical garden, various fruits and vegetables carved in marble, ranged in graduated rows constitute the delusion. Here too, some idea may be obtained of the immense number of statues. And the beautiful pinnacles. All of pure white marble. I never have seen any thing of the kind more remarkable. In the sacristy are kept a number of
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    valuables. Two large silver statues of St Charles and St Ambrose arrayed in their pontifical robes. A chalice sculptured by Benvenuto Cellini- Many very large precious stones. And I cannot pretend to enter into an enumeration of the others as I have not time- In a subterranean chapel is the mausoleum of San Carlo Borromeo, patron of the church. It is of incomparable magnificence almost entirely composed of basso relievos in silver representing various events of his life. The walls are encrusted with fine marbles. The sarcophagus is superb of silver, the armorial bearings of gold, presented by Philip IV of Spain. I must leave the cathedral although there is much more of which I would speak. Visited archbishop's palace, where was a collection of paintings, not worth speaking of-
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    returned home, in order for our friends to go to Como. The rumors of war are rife- and as they speak of allowing only one train to go to Venice, feared inconvenience in leaving here- concluded to start Monday. Drove out some distance to hear a celebrated echo, which sometimes is repeated eighty times. Heard the report of a gun repeated, twenty-seven times. Then drove to the model farm where cheese is made in perfection. Some of the party enjoyed a glass of fresh rich milk. The Ambrosian library. The most interesting place I have visited here. It was founded by Federigo Borromeo I cannot commence enumerating all the objects of interest. Amongst others a volume of Leonardo da Vinci's works. An autograph letter of Lucrezia Borgia to Cardinal Bembo and a lock of her hair. In a room adjoining the library
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    are some exquisite pieces of sculpture by Thorwaldsen- Up-stairs in the picture rooms- First some pieces of work in bronze- finely executed one representing Apollo and the Museo- Here was a visit of Thorwaldsen by himself- of Canova by himself. The Crucifixion by Guido Reni in the next room, took me completely by surprise as I had never heard it spoken of. The canvas seems to be about ten feet in length- 5 in width. The flesh is more life like than any representation I have ever seen. And the figure seems almost starting from the canvas. The head is beautiful, the expression of the countenance so divine even in agony. In this room is also Raphael's cartoon for the school of Athens. Several by Titian and many masterpieces by several fine painters. On the whole I think the collection a much superior one to the Brera.
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    In a drive all through the environs of the city which took in the "Arch of Peace"- A fine structure of white marble on the top of which is a bronze car in which is seated the figure of Peace drawn by six horses, Four equestrian statues stand at each end. The Immense columns of pure white marble forming this arch- the exquisite workmanship on the relievos, and its beautiful ornamentation make it one of the most striking monuments of Milan. Then visited a Villa, of which I do not remember the name and was not much. April 16 Saturday After prayers, went out for a walk. Saw a workshop for painted glass, some fine specimens were shown us- and I should judge it required the genius to excel in this workmanship- Again to the Cathedral Then to a collection of pictures for sale- Still farther, it seemed to me almost taking the circuit of the city to visit another collection, which were quite
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    worthy the walk. I cannot understand how a man possessing such fine paintings can be any thing but wealthy. They are all for sale however and if not by the artists he says they are, are beautiful notwithstanding. Guido, Rubens- Titian, Murillo, Velasquez figure among them, and other artists second only to them in merit. A lovely portrait by Murillo of Catharine of Braganza. Passed the quarters of Hungarian regiments [Probably referring to Austrian troops assembling in the Piedmont just before the Second Italian War of Independence]. These are clean, bright looking men. Their uniform, blue tights white coats, and small blue caps- Soldiers fill the streets- thus it presents a truly martial aspect. April 17. Sunday. Como. Went from Milan this morning at 7. A.M. to Como, reached there by 8.A.M. just in time for the steamer to take a sail on the lake. The weather very lovely- but a fresh breeze, rather interfered with a thorough appreciation, as
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    were obliged to select most sheltered positions, The scenery on leaving is unsurpassed by any we have yet seen. The steep mountains on either side covered with shrubbery and studded with Villas. At the foot of almost every mountain rises a village apparently from the lake- their reflection together with that of the verdures on the mountains in the water creates a peaceful charm, so inspiriting, so charming, it caused me to feel better, happier- We landed at Villagio, took breakfast at the "Albergo"- which commanded a lovely prospect- and walked up a tolerably steep ascent to the Villa Serbelloni, which is admirably situated to command a view of the three lakes Lecco, Colico, and Como. Winding ascents through shady avenues give varied views, and each turn seems to open new beauties to view. At the steps entered into a charming little sail-boat and rowed to the Villa Melzi. Here the gardens are
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    more beautiful than in the other, but the view of the lake not better. In one spot, the shady grove, and numberless perfumes. the glimpses every here and there of the lake and its surroundings- added to the charm of a lovely atmosphere- might realise the dream of Paradise. Continued the sail to Villa Somaria in the village of Cadenabbia. The water of the lake is so perfectly clear and limpid that it seemed to me I might distinguish every pebble. We sailed along so calmly, so sweetly. I was almost sorry to reach the villa- at which we had but a few moments to spare. Entered into the house however. And admired a very beautiful piece of statuary said to be by Canova. Love kissing Venus- a most voluptuous piece of work, but so much grace of attitude nature and beauty that it challenges admiration. The room is a gem, in so much as all that it contains
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    is among the choicest pieces of art. Large as life Venus and Perseus- and a very beautiful statue of Palamedes. Round the room is a beautiful frieze in marble basso relievo- representing some of the exploits of Alexander by Thorwaldsen. The appearance of the steamer hurried us away, so that but a hasty glance was all that could be bestowed on it. A sail of a couple of moments brought us alongside of the steamer- on board of which some American gentlemen, whom we had met before and who were returning from the Lago Maggiore, had entered after we left- so that Americans claimed the best part of our passengers. There was less wind but more clouds on our return, so that the enchantment in my eyes was a little dispelled but beauty enough remained to charm away all morbid sensations. Is it possible that constant association with such scenes so weakens their power over the sense, that it yields to all the evil passions!
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    It was 4 1/2, when the boat reached Como- entered into an omnibus and drove to the depot, which is at Camerlata a couple of miles from Como- The cars left at 5 P.M. so that it was nearly 7. When we reached the hotel. One of the stations at which we stopped, only a few moments was Monza. The country was passed through, peaceful- green and picturesque. While sailing on Lake Como- Monte Rosa- and Mount St Gothard were pointed out- April 18. Monday. Left Milan at 6. AM. for Venice- The day cold and clear- The first part of the journey lay through a fine country. Many peaks covered with snow- upon which the sunshine cast a glow of light, formed a lovely background to the verdure just before us. These mountains were the Alps. Just beyond Desenzano, the lakes Garda burst upon us. It is formed by the water form the river Mincio; descending from the Italian Tyrol. As we approach Venice the rail-road
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    traverses a very flat region of country in most places seeming to receive much care and attention in cultivation, but with little or no beauty to boast of. A long bridge- appearing to carry us through the water brought us to the "city rising from the sea." As we landed Gondaliers, instead of hack-men gathered round- with the usual importunities of that class of gentry. Stepped into a gondola and glided along the Grand Canal- as far as the "Rialto"-with a view of the "Bridge of Sighs" sailing along so calmly that I was almost sorry to see the Hotel "Reale Albergo". Venice. Where Mr Vail, who met us at the depot, had already engaged apartments for us- In the evening walked to the Piazza San- Marco- where a brilliant view broke upon me. The square was brilliantly lighted and the effect of the many stores of fancy articles, situated under the Arcades of the Procuratie Vecchie, gave it a most fairy like aspect.
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    April 19 Tuesday. How much I regret that it is impossible for us to keep this sacred holiday - and much as I desire I can in way avoid breaking through the holy prescriptions. A short distance from the Hotel, is the Piazza San Marco- at the very entrance to it almost, is the Doge's palace, where we first winded[?] our way. In the court-yard are two curious looking wells- for cistern water, where during the whole day, the people are resorting for water. At the head of the Giant's staircase by which we ascended into the palace are two large statues, which give name to it. Along the corridor are two openings said to have been, places for the Lyon's mouth which received the secret denunciation. In the Sala del Maggior Consiglio are some remarkably fine paintings-- Amongst them is Paradise by Tintoretto said to be the largest painting in
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    the world. I cannot take time to particularise them or to name the different apartments through which we went. Round the Sala del Maggior Consiglio is the frieze of Portraits of the Doge's, one place covered with a black pall intended for Marino Faliero- contains an inscription to the effect- that he having undergone the disgrace of being decapitated, was not worthy of being placed amongst these illustrious. The scala d'oro, in its palmy days, must have been magnificent in its brilliancy. From one of the rooms, viewed the bridge of Sighs leading to the prisons- That in which Silvio Pellico was confined our guide pointed out on the other side. entering again into the square- stopped to examine its surroundings. Heard the clock strike twelve- saw the iron man with his hammer strike the hours. Entered into the vestibule of the Cathedral of St Mark, which is decorated
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    with numerous, mosaics, precious marbles &c, many from Constantinople- Outside the church, above the center porch, stand the four celebrated bronze horses, brought from the Hippodrome at Constantinople. Some very beautiful and ancient mosaics ornament the exterior facade of the church- As you enter the vestibule in the pavement is a slab of red marble, said to be the spot and stone in which pope Alexander III. was reconciled to Frederick Barbarossa- putting his foot upon the emperor's neck and repeating the words "Thou shall tread upon the lion and the adder". It was nearly 2. P.M. when we had finished examining contents of the vestibule- hastened again into the Piazza to see the pigeons fed- As the clock struck two, they flocked from every part of the square to a certain window in the Procuratio Vecchio- A man opened the window and distributed seemingly no more than a handful of grain- These pigeons
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    are fed at the public expense and have been so for many years- No one knows the origin- at least no one has been able to give me information. In the church I was exceedingly disappointed- Richly ornamented, it is true, with mosaics covering the vaulted roofs and sides. The most precious marbles- Pillars from the East principally, these are numerous- and of every size, shape and species. Too lazy to enter into minutia and not sufficiently interested. April 20. Wednesday A walk in the streets around the Piazza di San Marco, here no sound of carriage wheels, no horses to avoid, separate one from the idea of a great city. Returning to the hotel, entered into a gondola, for sight-seeing excursion, and rowed along the Grand Canal tranquilly and luxuriously to the Church of "Santa Maria della Salute" A fine looking exterior, octagonal in form.
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    and presenting within a fine and imposing effect. Being holy week, all the pictures were covered, but in a sort of gallery leading to the sacristy are some fine frescoes by Titian, whose works abound in Venice. The frescoes on the ceiling of the sacristy by Titian are very beautiful. In the "Accademia delle belle Arti" is the magnificent painting of the "Assumption of the Virgin" by Titian. In coloring so rich and glowing, the position of the virgin so admirably chosen, her expression so anxious, so natural. The groups below are many of them striking figures. And the heavenly array above is exquisitely rich and brilliant in its tints. Titian appears the presiding genius of Venice, almost every place of any note boasts of something by his master-hand, and he has contributed much towards the embellishment of his master-city. In another room is a painting representing "Sacrifice of Isaac," Cain killing Abel- and David and Goliath.
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    representing the Fisherman presenting the Doge with the ring. The architectural painting about this struck me as being remarkable. The pillars supporting the building- and the perspective of those in the building just beyond. The mosaic floors, the basso relievos round the base of the stage on which the chair of the Doge is elevated, the painting of the ceiling of the hall; all this is most minutely and exquisitely finished. The figures also are some of them particularly fine. This painting is by Paris Bordone. Another apartment contains the fine figure of St John- by Titian. In the room with the Fisherman and doge is one by Titian, which has few seconds the "Presentation of the Virgin at the temple"- I believe I could never have had an idea of the brilliancy and beauty and voluptuousness of Titian but in Venice. There is a whole series of paintings here
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    illustrating the history of Santa Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins. From the Accademia to the Museo Correr, where I saw little that particularly interested me- a large gilded piece belonging to the "porta of the Gondola" Bucentauro "used in the last marriage of the Adriatic and the veritable standard that was flying from it on that occasion. The first pieces done by Canova are also here. The chiesa degli Scalzi is one of the richest church in marbles I have ever seen. The effect on entering is very grand for the painting on the vaulting of the roof is fine and the gilding statuary and marbles form magnificent coup-d'oeil. In one of the chapels, rays of glass, reflect down upon some statuary and over the altar a very peculiar and beautiful light. The floating along had such a charm for us that begged off from
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    further sights and continued up the Grand Canal, stopping at a beer brewery where Father heated the Gondoliers, who I tried to induce to sing for me, but he excused himself, saying that it was only customary for them to sing "Nella Sera", that he had a fine top for the Gondola and "Molti Specchi" and if we would take an evening sail he would gratify us. Passed under one of the arches of the enormous bridge over the Lagoon, traversed by the rail-road. It is over two miles in extent. Passing by the botanical garden, father would enter- a walk around was pleasant. Again under Bridge of Sighs to the Rialto, where disembarked and walked across. This appears the busiest part of Venice. All the gold silver work seems concentrated here just beyond are the vegetable markets- and the house of Shylock was pointed out.
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    Walked with Mr & Mrs Vail into the little garden along Piazza San Marco, leading from the Mint and took ices- All Venice seems to be collected at night in the Piazza of San Marco. April 24. Thursday. A walk after breakfast in the Mercerio[?] with Mrs Prevost, purchased a "Meerschaum". Returned in time for the Gondola rounds, mostly occupied to-day in the churches. The Chiesa "Santa Maria dei Frari"- interesting from the magnificent monuments to illustrious men, it contains. One of the first that strikes one on entering is that of Titian- A large base of marble supports a canopy- under which is seated the marble figure of this celebrated man, crowned with laurel; On each side are allegorical figures representing, I believe, the arts, below, on the base are four larger figures, which appeared to me fine pieces of work. One man holding an inscription in praise of Titian, an old man also
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    holding a scroll, are most conspicuous. The columns supporting the canopy are Corinthian, and beautifully ornamented. The design of the monument, and the statue of Titian as well as of one of the figures on the base are by Zandomenichi [Zandomeneghi?]- It was to him by Ferdinand I. of Austria In the same church is the monument to Canova, after his own design of one erected to the Archduchess Christina of Sweden. It is a pyramid of beautifully pure, white marble. Into the iron doors a procession are entering, figure leading with a tear bottle (Anchymatore) in her hand, followed by the geniuses of poetry, painting &c, &c. Next to this is a most curious and colossal monument, raised to Giovanni Pesaro, a doge of Venice. It is supported by four Africans of black marble, dressed in suits of white marble, their knees and elbows, protruding through
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    rents in their clothes. At the sides are two skeletons in bronze with scrolls in their hands. The sarcophagus on two frightful looking dragons- And above sits the Doge in Supreme content. I mean in an upper compartment- for this enormous concern occupies the whole height of the church. The monument to the Doge Foscari is in the upper part of this church, and opposite a magnificent one to Nicholas Iron, a wealthy merchant of that time. While we were in this church there was a holy procession, carrying the host; I believe they call it interring Christ, and they now have no mass said until Sunday, when he rises. Church and Scuola of San Rocco- The Scuola is ornamented with some fine paintings by Tintoretto his master piece is here, The Crucifixion.
Title:
David Henry Mordecai Travel Diary (1856-57)
Creator:
Mordecai, David Henry
Date:
1856-1857
Description:
Record of David Henry Mordecai's illnesses and schooling, mostly in Heidelberg, Germany, with some notations at Ems. With sporadic notations of weather, and mentions of South Carolinians Albert Rhett, William, John & Alfred Preston, Charles Boyd, Hammond, Legare, D.C. Seixas & others. References to museums, artwork and plays seen. Mentions of health and cures, the need for an operation (p. 73); stupidity of peasants vs. slaves (18); lynching (21), political situation in Kansas (30); doomed nature of American slavery (31); inevitability of Civil War (31-2); state support of SC College (56-57); women who "paint" their faces (111). With constant references to family, and some financial jottings. Some entries in German.
Collection:
Thomas J. Tobias papers, ca. 1790-1970
Contributing Institution:
College of Charleston Libraries
Media Type:
Manuscripts
Personal or Corporate Subject:
Mordecai family
Topical Subject:
Jews--South Carolina--Charleston--History, Travelers--Diaries, Travelers--Germany--History--19th century
Geographic Subject:
Germany--Commerce--History--19th century, Germany--Economic conditions--19th century, Germany--History--1848-1870, Germany--Description and travel, Germany--Archival resources
Language:
English
Shelving Locator:
Mss 1029 (5A/13)
Material Type:
image/jpeg
Digitization Specifications:
400ppi, 24-bit depth, color, Epson Expression 10000XL, Archival Masters are tiffs.
Rights:
Digital image copyright 2009, The College of Charleston. All rights reserved. For more information contact The College of Charleston Library, Charleston, SC 29424.