David Henry Mordecai Travel Diary (1849)

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    David Henry Mordecai Charleston S. Ca March 1849
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    Aetus 15. 1 March first 1849. On the first day out we found it very rough from the previous winds which made a heavy swell in one case and made me sick for two days on the other. On the third 3rd March day however I determined to go up. So I rose early and donned my clothes and went on deck where a cool breeze soon brought me to myself and I eat all my meals during this day and kept them down. About noon we passed a part of the gulf stream, this is a great natural curiosity for it is a current running north I believe about 60 miles broad and its waters are of a different colour from the ocean and they do not mingle with it. I am ignorant of the cause. In the stream we saw turtles, sharks, flying fish and some dolphins.
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    March 3rd During all this day we sailed along the Florida Coast and passed two keys belonging to Father one called Indian Key and the other Salt Key. Indian Key has some houses of fishermen upon it. We also passed Cape Florida and the place where stood the light house in which the keeper was smoked by the Indians in the Seminole War, See the Appendix 1st. About seven oclock we arrived at Key West an island and a safe place for vessels in distress. It contains about three thousand inhabitants. We walked about the place and here I first saw a cocoa nut tree. It is beautiful from 60 to 70 ft. high and no leaves except at the top of the size and form of the [...]
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    {Drawing top left 1 inch tall of tree. Simple and resembles a tree.} The bark is smooth rather and in layers thus. It has a fine appearance. All the tropical fruits grow in Key West except the Orange which does not thrive on account of the salt air. The houses are some wood and some stone all with piazzas and no chimney except in some kitchens or placed for ornament for they never need fires there. We strolled along the different places and found in almost every place men as drunk as they could be. The population is composed of but few really respectable persons a great many wreckers, sailors and Negroes who when they get a chance generally take more than their fill in intoxicating drinks. I forgot to speak of the Wreckers, we saw several of them in our course.
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    March 3rd They are men who go out in Schooners to assist distressed vessels a very laudable action indeed but not so in its intent, they obtain a part of the cargo for helping the vessels and they tell some very hard tales about them. For an account of the little boat see Appendix 2. About one oclock at night after having taken in Coal we started out to sea and after eating fresh turtle steaks for supper adjourned to bed until next day at 7 March 4th oclock when I rose and found the Island of Cuba in sight. The reason of our not leaving Key West so late was for one reason we wanted to attain a good supply of fuel and for another reason
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    they will not allow any ship to enter the harbor of Havanna or even go out of it unless in broad daybreak. About ten oclock we approached the harbor of Havanna, the harbor itself is capable of holding 1000 vessels but its entrance is so narrow that only one ship can enter at a {Drawing middle left 1/2 inch simple showing the harbor indicating castles on left and right with a bulbous shape in middle with the word "water" at the mouth.} time. Thus "A" represents the Moro {Morro} Castle and "B" the Punto another fortification. Immediately on our arrival The heath[?] officer came up and examined our passports and seeing them all right departed and made way for the officer of the customs and his boat. We were then permitted to leave the ship. She did not go to a wharf but a number
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    small boats came up eager to take the passengers ashore and charging a piscator[?] (20cts) for each passenger. And now having landed or rather quietly on board the ship let us look around. We are right opposite the Passeo de ODonnell the late Captain General which is a beautiful stone battery fronting the sea and within a beautiful square planted out with trees. The general aspect of this city as I first looked at it filled me with surprise and pleasure the rarity of the sight which struck my eye every thing so different from an American city, the cool air altogether charmed me. Coming up to the city
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    March 4th its general view is beautiful. About twelve oclock, I went down with Father who had been pretty near as sick as myself and Uncle H and Isaac Lyons who had not been sick at all and took some lunch in, the Captain then ordered one of his iron boats to be manned and he and the Captain went ashore and landed near the Paseo (Walk) de ODonnell. We commenced to walk along the streets I must now give a description of 1st the Houses, 2nd the streets 3rd the wharves before I can go on with my narrative. The Houses are for the most part that is to say the generality of one story built of a composition of mortar and stones and sometimes of limestone which is very plentiful here. They then are washed over with
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    blue or some fancy color and roofed with earthen tiles. They also have large windows stretching in the houses of one story from top to bottom and with timbers stretched lengthwise upon them and no glass these windows are always provided with curtains which are closed or let down in the heat of the day and in the cool of the afternoon. The ladies dressed in their best appear either standing or sitting at them. A great many houses are with courts and many very handsome and beautiful dwellings which have spacious courts, three or 4 stories and beautifully ornamented. Altogether the houses are very peculiar from their shape and many little particulars[?]
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    and they are all built with careful regard to coolness very necessary for comfort. The floors of the houses are composition which resemble [...] of the hardness of stone laid over wood. The roofs or rather ceilings are almost all arched or pointed gable, in some cases the wood is not covered on which the tiles are laid but painted and ornamented, this however I believe only occurs in the old houses and they are building now some with flat roofs. The houses of two or more stories generally have piazzas. The streets are for the most part very narrow and present a very dirty appearance in most places within and a great many without the walls. Some of the principal streets
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    are Mercaderes, O Reilly, Cuba and some others within the walls and I believe the "Calle de la Reina" (Queen St) without the walls is certainly a beautiful st in a great many parts and contains many fine houses in which are gardens. There are some very handsome Stores in which you can procure elegant goods but for the most part small at least compared with the stores of the United States. There are numberless tobacco stores at which segars {cigars} range from $10 to $20 a thousand and Cigaretos 81 for a real or 12 1/2 cts. The wharves along which we walked contained a great number of vessels from American to European
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    ports. The wharfs extend in one unbroken line from end to end of the city coming from the Mole and ending at the Passeo O Donnell. There are also many ships on the opposite side where there are sugar warehouses. x x x x x x. We continued our walk along the wharves until we came to the mole. This place is a portion of a wharf which has a shed over it so as to obtain shade. Here is the change of Havanna at which all the business in the way of buying and selling is done before breakfast (9 oclock). Here also are assembled all the little boats which convey you to the different vessels in the harbor and of the make and appearance of a gondola. From the mole we went to the landing house called the "Mansion House" kept by Mr Fulner[?] an American.
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    After looking at our rooms, Captain Rollings went with us to a very celebrated confectionary here called the Dominica very handsomely fitted up but not to compare to the Meridiana at the other corner, which is fitted up most elegantly. Beautiful painted ceilings, grottoes, fountains, such as struck me as being very splendid. They are renowned for their confectioneries in this place. After taking some refreshments we walked to the hotel and waited there until dinner. Green peas, tomatoes and [...] formed the rarities to us also green corn but the meat is miserable and they do not have a good table here. I do not know what they do in the other houses.
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    After dinner we called two volantes to take a ride. I must describe a volante, the word volante means I believe a flying coach. They are buggies capable of holding two persons and so fixed as to hang low on springs the shafts are then brought out about 10[?]ft and the horse harnessed in so as to leave about three ft between the body of the carriage and the veil of the horse. There is no seat for a driver in the volante for it comes up {A scribbled drawing 3/4 inch tall with letters to the left of page} thus A is seat B the back and C a curtain generally buttoned up to the top. The driver mounts on the horse, (who is called Cassalie) dressed in white knee breeches with high top boots and Beaner hat and velvet blue or crimson, sometimes worked in gold lace according to the wealth of the owner.
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    They are very pleasant riding and exceeding comfortable and easy. They are pretty nearly the only vehicles used here and some owned by the rich and driven with two horses are beautiful. The horses too are quite singular. They are small ponies but strong and fine looking, a peculiar breed. The charge regular of these volantes are a piscator[?] {20cts} if you wish to ride within the walls to any place but without 2. Or 2 piscators[?] an hour in the city and 3 out of the city. At night after eleven oclock they charge double but they will cheat a stranger who does not speak Spanish if he is not up to traps. But to our ride, we rode along several streets until we arrived at
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    the burying ground. This is a large square surrounded on three sides by a wall in which are a great many vaults above ground like [...]. When a person dies, they dress him in his or her finest clothes with ornaments and jewels upon them. Then if the surviving persons interested in the deceased choose or if he has left the money for the purchase they buy one of these vaults at the price of $100 for the first twenty years and $5 every additional year or for some price I forget what you can obtain it for [...]. They have no attendance after the hearse but arrived at the grave yard they mutilate the clothes so as to be useless and no enticement to thieves to rob the body and then cast it into the vault without coffin and seal the vault
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    with plaster and engrave the name etc. But those without these vaults are thrown without coffins into a ditch 5 or 4 ft deep and sometimes 3 or 4 bodies one or the other. They then cover them up with a little dirt. I saw a Negro buried in this latter manner while I was there. After having seen this to me revolting spectacle we got again into the volantes and road off for the country. I might as well give here a description of the appearance of Sunday. Hardly any difference from any of our common days of the week. It is the great day here for amusements and numbers are congregated in the paseos walking about. We saw soldiers parading and the chain gang
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    working and also manufactories in operation. The chain gang is composed of malefactors whose punishment is working for government. All the great public works are done by them and there are numbers of them. They are chained by a chain passing from the foot to their waist onto the sides so as not to prevent their walking pretty slowly but if they attempted to run would fall down. We went along some parts of the country and it appeared beautiful we ascended the hill in which stands a fortification leading down on the Passeo de Jaem[?]. Passeo in Spanish means walk. The one of Jaem[?] is about half a mile long and divided into 4 paths for [one/the] warehouse[?] by beautiful trees and flowers. There are in it four of five statues.
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    March 4th and fountains. There is one road leading into the country from the Passeo literally lined with roses. We here got out to take a glance at the Governor's house and garden which I will describe afterwards. We then road homeward to the "Theatre Jaem[?]" on the Passeo nueva or new walk and commonly resorted to by all classes as an afternoon and evening promenade. Came here and got a ticket for the theatre in a private box. I must now describe this theatre. As to size it is capable of holding 1000 persons. On the bottom is the Parquette the seats of which are numbered and you secure your seat [�] like an [...] chair free from all intrusion and if you go out as most
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    March 4th all do between the Acts no one can occupy your seat. On the second, third and fourth rows or tiers are the private boxes bought for the season or life term of years by the rich and nobility. And here is the most beautiful display. On the fifth are the seats appropriate for those women alone who came without Gentleman and on another side Men alone. On the sixth story it is an [... ...] of the rabble[?] and lower orders. The best possible order presides and no smoking is allowed. The Orchestra consists of about 50 musicians and the chandelier in the middle contains near 90 gas burners. It is a very beautiful Theatre and contains many persons and fine dressed ladies in abundance. The Ravels[?] were the performers. I Rode here after ten from the Theatre in a volante gave the Driver
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    a piscater[?] and retired to bed having seen enough new things for one day at least. March 5th Was aroused quite early by the beating of drums which proceeded from the review in the Plaza des Armas of some regiments. Got up dressed and went with Uncle H to a Cathedral which I thought very splendid at that time but since then have seen one which beats it quite. We saw Mass performed and remained there until one of the priests motioned to us to kneel down, which being not very willing to do we departed. I have not learnt the name of the Cathedral. It was now nine oclock the breakfast hour and we went to the hotel for breakfast. Which ended. we proceeded through some principal
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    Sts until we came to the market. This is a large hollow square if I may so call it with stores or stalls containing Merchandize or groceries forming the walls. A square being thus formed all the vegetables are laid on the ground on different squares and the meat and fish on tables spread out on the square. There were all kinds of vegetables and fruits of the Season consisting of Oranges Bananas Plantains Sappadilloes {Sapodillas sp*} [� �] Bead fruit and many others. The meat is small and the most we saw extremely poor. I was told Pork sold 40. Lamb or Sheep 30 and Beef 20 cts per pound. This will account for the small portions into which the meat is cut. The oysters are here very diminutive. The Price of fruit here of all kinds is very cheap excepting oranges which sell for a media (6 cts) and nearly all the trees have been destroyed by a small insect
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    March 5th for which as yet they have found no remedy. This disease commenced about 5 yrs ago. I have seen several trees infested with this worm which look covered with small white specks. Bananas you can obtain 12 for 6 cts. After visiting and walking round the market we came home. We visited the Plaza des Armas in the afternoon. This is a large square finely laid out with beautiful palms and other kinds of trees, at the back of which is the house of the Captain General. The lower part of which are Barracks for Soldiers and the second story is his private residence. We saw here regiments which were passing inspection the most of the soldiers dressed in white pants white Coats and Black leather hats. Some regiments have panama hats. Others have coloured coats of cloth.
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    March 5th They tell me that they receive but $10 a month out of which they are obliged to furnish themselves with provisions, uniforms and washing. They are to a man recruited from Spain and obliged to stay here 5 yrs. The most of the men that I saw were about 35 yrs old in appearance and some much younger. There was the Band in service consisting of 54 wind instruments 6 Bugles and 7 drums and kettle drums exclusive. They form as may be supposed beautiful music and they play from all the operas every night on the Plaza where the Persons resort from eight until nine in the evening during the winter months but in summer their resort is the Passeo O Donnell. In the middle of the Plaza is a full length statue of Christopher Columbus on an high pedestal and 4 fountains in various parts. The Place at night is lighted with gas except
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    March 6 on moonlight nights. The scene in an evening is very beautiful. March 6th. After Breakfast Uncle H and I took a pretty long walk but is was exceeding warm and I derived little pleasure from it. Here they call the stores by fancy names as La Polka La Dominica La Meridiana Le [Sort...]. La Minerra[?] and such others. I suppose the signs were formerly there and they have rejected the former and retained the latter. In the Afternoon we rode out to a fort at the head of the Passeo de Jaem[?] to see a sham battle between 5000 troop. I had never seen that number before. The sight of the number was very good but
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    March 6-7-8 they did not divide they only imagined an enemy and then did not go through navy[?] evolutions[?]. Having procured a volante We rode to the Passeo Nueva in front of The Jaem Theatre and walked about there and then returned home took a walk in the Plaza until nine and then went March 7th to Bed. Rose early next day to write some letters and remained home during the whole morning engaged in reading and studying a little some Latin. Afternoon took a walk to the Passeo strolled down to home upon it. March 8th. Went with father to take a cup of Coffee and on the mole. I must now describe the way the Spanish Merchants pass their time before Breakfast. They first rise very early and make a strong cup of coffee without milk they then go down on the mole which serves as an exchange and there all the business of buying and selling is done before breakfast which is generally
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    at this place at nine oclock. The People are very early risers and at seven oclock everything is as in full go as at ten. We here saw Cargoes landing and selling etc and then went to see the Parade in the Plaza des Armas which takes place every morning between seven and eight oclock. At eleven we went to the Fish Market and I reckon this as one of the greatest curiosities that I have ever seen. There are there Turtle and Fish of all colours of the rainbow blue and gold. Red. Yellow green black, white. All shades and mixtures of all colours. Some fish have all the colours of the rainbow. They are also of all colours from a Sardine to a fish a yard long. Most of their shell fish is small here except turtle. I saw
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    March 8-9 here also several curiously formed fish too numerous to mention. One would think all their fish here are painted. I never saw anything at all like it. Went in the Afternoon to a Frenchman's public Garden where Father bought some plants and where I served as interpreter. In the evening young Mr. Ordez called and took me to the theatre. After which had a supper at Cultes[?] a french coffee house and came here half past eleven. March 9th. Woke early and went to the Market. Afterwards took a tremendously trying walk out to the same garden where we rode yesterday. (by mistake of our guide) and home again. On our way bough[t] three Panama hats for which the man charged us at first $18 hat at last took $15[?]. They are well worth it. Came here and took a glass of ice Lemonade and a good
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    March 9 wash. In the afternoon took a ride out to Cerro in an omni-bus with one of the owners of La Meridiana, who was kind enough to conduct us to some of the principal places in Havanna. Cerro is one of the environs of Havanna and contains many houses of the nobility with gardens some most beautiful attached to them. In this place is the garden (formerly) of the Bishop of Havanna but at present Private property. It consists of beautiful Avenues of fruit trees among which are all the fruits of the island fountains and plants all once and even now are very beautiful. But it is impossible to give a good idea of the place for it is so different from such things in our own country that the descriptions do not covey good ideas. Formerly there was a large collection of wild beasts
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    March 9-10 kept here but nothing remains but an alligator some 5ft long and a Spanish bird of black plumage and yellow beak and of large size. The house was partly destroyed by the hurricane which occurred in 1846. It being dark we then road home again and went on the Plaza and came home to bed March 10th Today being Saturday after going To procure passports for Matanzas remained home most of the day occupied in reading Lamartines Raphael. Walked out to the Passeo in the afternoon down as far as to the Punto. This place I have before spoken of. It is situated on a bed of corral rock which has a dark and black appearance and very rough right open to the sea. The fortification is a garrison for soldiers and a jail for state prisoners. Outside is a plain used for drilling recruits and parading soldiers.
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    March 10-11 We remained looking for some time at the drilling of the awkward squad and then returned home and went on the Plaza until 9 oclock. Came home to Bed and packed up the traps[?] for to start for Matanzas early in the morning. March 11th. Was awaked at four oclock in the morning. At six proceeded to the Depot and at 1/2 6 started. Here they have 1st and 2nd class cars the first are the handsomest but the second more comfortable. The first class tickets are $5.50 second class {blank} and you are obliged to pay 50cts for each trunk. You change cars at Guines about 12 miles from Matanzas. The country all along is beautiful fertile and in some parts highly cultivated. Along the road are sugar canes fine apples sugar plantations, and all kinds of tropical fruits. Mangoes[?]
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    in blossom a stately green and broad spreading tree. About 9 oclock they stopped to break fast but I could not eat the prepared one so that having bought some bread and cheese made my breakfast out of that. About one oclock we arrived at Matanzas. Mr. Jenks[?] conducted us to our hotel where having procured two comfortable rooms we went to a fresh water bath and having refreshed myself came home and eat a hearty dinner. After dinner went down to a bridge which leads across one[?] creek which runs through the town and saw the volantes pass by. Came home at night very tired and sleepy and went to bed disturbed only by the Mosquitoes. I have as yet seen nothing in Matanzas different from Havanna. March 12th. Waked rather late this morning. Went with father to Mr Seaks's[?] counting house {a firm or business house} and from there to the mole.
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    March 12th The mole is a large wharf covered over like the mole at Havanna but the Merchants do not congregate there. There is no "Change" here. There is much fish and crabs etc along the beach and wharves early in the morning and I waited saw them cast a net several times. Then walked up home to Breakfast. After Breakfast staid home mostly until dinner time having nothing particular to see in the town as there are no striking particular sights and the generality is like Havanna. After dinner took a walk out on the Passeo. It is very pretty fronting on the sea and composed of Pines. We saw here some soldiers Parading. In the evening By the invitation of Mr Brinckerhoff we went
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    March 13th to the Theatre to see the Viennese Children. The Theatre is a small 3 tiered place and very poor compared to that of Havannah x x x x There is one peculiarity I noticed here no ships come to the Wharves the waters being too shallow but lay off about half a mile and lay on or discharge cargoes by means of barges. Returned home after ten. March 13th Rose today and went and took a good salt water bath for which they charged me a rial[?] and a media (6 cts) for a small towel. After Breakfast staid home. After Dinner took a walk to the Plaza. It is a very large square with not so many trees as that in Havanna but with a large statue of Ferdinand in the middle.
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    They have music here twice or three times a week. March 14th. Started pretty early this morning in the car for a visit to the sugar Plantation of Mr Macomb[?] 18 miles from Matanzas. Arrived there at 3 oclock and walked up to the house. Before Breakfast went all through the sugar factory. The first thing to be done is to cut the cane and grind it as soon as possible after it is cut as the sun draws out a portion of the Saccharine matter. The season for commencing to cut is about November or December. The juice is then expressed from the cane by means of a mill and then boiled in different pots of large size while it reaches the consistency of sugar. The fuel used for boiling these pots are the canes
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    dried in the sun, then placed under sheds. The boiling syrup is then placed in vats in which it cools and forms sugar. The Negroes then take it in vessells to the Purging department where it is placed in hogsheads with small holes in the bottom connecting with holes in the floor through which the dripping runs into large vats below and this is called molasses. They place in the hhds {short for hogsheads--large casks or barrels} large stalks of the Plantains which affords a conduit in the molasses to run through on account of its arranged and bended shape. The sugar is then well dried, packed in boxes or hhds and ready for the market. The sugars we saw manufactured were Muscovado and the Brand "Victorias."[?] In regard to the cultivation of the cane here they only plant once and the cane then comes up every year, saving
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    a vast amount of labor and expense. They work here night and day dividing the negroes during the night into watches. A great many of them in the sugar house are perfectly naked (of their own accord). They work at the crop as hard as they can to get through by May or June the time of the commencement of the rainy season. I spent a very pleasant day here. The cars could not proceed for the want of water and so we were detained all night. We were hospitably received by Mr. M's family and I went to Bed at ten oclock. March 15th Return home. Trip to the Top of the [C�] � mountain and use of the American Aloes[?] March 16th Start to Havanna. March 17th Arrival of the Isabel. Segar {cigar} sick March 18th Ride to Cerro and Count Hernandon's [illegible]
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    March 19th [Rutcher Pen.?] Count Palatino's March 20th [???] del Monte Ball aboard the Isabel. March 21st Last day. Adieus. Start from Havanna. March 22nd Florida Coast March 23 Sick March 24th Do �{ditto} March 25th Arrival safe at home. Thank God March 26. Sunday occupations and conversations
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    Subjects for thinking on- 1st To what extent the idea of sending missions x -{"x" is symbol for "and"} missionaries should be carried- 2nd Upon the character, the firmness and the resolution of Jeforson's[?] character. 3rd Upon the immortality of the soul-- 4th To ensure respect we must not submit to insult-- 5th � Reforms in church worship- 6th � A [C�] of Historical reading-
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    Books to read- {empty page}
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    Memorabilia. viz Notices of all memorable things met with in Books or Conversation. ~ {Note in left margin next to main text} Cyrus the Younger- Auth. Xenophon Anabasis [�] Time. 379.B.C. {Main Text}- Xenophon in his eulogy on the character of the younger Cyrus, remarks "That Cyrus excelled all men in giving largely, nor in this is there anything wonderful, since he was a prince possessed of much power; but he was characterized by his descending as it were from his throne, and finding out all the wants and necessities of his subjects and relieving or ending them in a very delicate manner." A very excellent description of true benevolence of soul against that indiscriminate lavishing of money upon every one who asks it of us.
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    {Left Margin note} Croesus King of Lydia. Rollin .Vol.2. Time. B.C. 600. {Main entry} Plutarch relates a conversation Which Solon the Athenian Philosopher held with Croesus the king of Lydia, a short time before his empire was destroyed by Cyrus the Elder. Croesus having had reported to him the great wisdom of Solon, and expressing an ardent wish to become acquainted with so extraordinary a man, sent for him from Athens, and Solon came. The king made great preparations to receive him, and so splendidly were even his mean attendants dressed, that Solon mistook each for the King. Upon his introduction to him, however, Croesus perceived, that all this splendor had made no impression upon the philosopher, and wishing to be complimented on account of his great wealth, asked Solon, "who he thought the happiest man living." Solon replied, "One citizen of Athens, who poor as he is
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    lives virtuously and contentedly and distributes his pittance among the poor. At this reply the king felt much disappointed and lost much of his esteem for that Philosopher wisdom who could prefer a man sunk in poverty to all his grandeur but showed no marks of chagrin, and asked who he ranked second in the Sphere of happiness. Solon answered "Two Brothers of Athens, who the Chariot of their Mother wanting oxen, yoked themselves in it and drew their mother to the temple, thereby exciting the admiration of all good men. And lying down quietly in the Temples they fell into an eternal sleep. Loved and Regretted." At this Crosus was able to conceal his passion no longer, and asked in an angry tone "If he did not place him among or above those persons" Solon who wished to irritate the King no further answered him in substance as follows "King of Lydia- [�]
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    learn that besides many other advantages, the Gods have given us Grecians a plain sober mind and philosophy not used to or fond of this grandeur, and that he only was happy who continued so until the day of his death. As for others who are perpetually exposed to a thousand dangers, we account their happiness as uncertain as is the crown to a person that is still engaged in battle and has not yet obtained the victory. And we in consequence, considering to what necessities[?] man is liable, do neither glory in prosperity or praise the happiness of others." This said, he retired and here AEsop took occasion to say to him "O Solon speak what is pleasing to kings or speak not at all." To whom Solon replied "Nay Oh AEsop Say what can be beneficial or speak naught!
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    Miscellaneous remarks upon History Reading in Charleston July 9th 1849. Superstition has generally had a great effect upon large bodies of men. It is the fundamental law of friendship never to ask of or grant anything to friends that does not consist with justice or honour. Cicero do Amicitia The true way to rule is to appear to be ruled. Though a man may seem benefitted at a particular time to hear[?] through his principles yet we always find in the end that those who have always adhered to them, have been best off in the end.
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    Algebraical tricks a[^2]x + b[^3] = b[^2]x + a[^3] 29th of Hall-- a[^2]x - b[^2]x = a[^3]- b[^3] x = a[^3]-b[^3] / a[^2] - b[^2] = (a[^2] + ab + b[^2])(a � b)/ (a + b)(a � b)
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    {struck through: Blair's lectures on Rhetoric Lecture.}
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    Greek. Finish Electra this week-- Latin--Read about 2/3 of the Andria- Logic, & Rhetoric Finish the one; & down to Fallacies in the other-- Mathematics- Finish Analytic, and careful review of 11th Book-- Also finish Plain Geometry, and Review of Plane Trig'y. = Chronology--Advance as far as, Division of the Empire between the Sons of Theodorus- Mythology--Finish-- Geography= Finish Modern, if possible. --
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    {pressed leaves}
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    End of the questions on Grecian History Part 1st
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    Jews This persecuted race
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    End of the questions a History
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    {pressed leaves}
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    {pressed leaves- looks like a flower}
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    41 Yet this greatest of all concerns (our care for the will of God) must not be drawn out beyond its proper length. It is often the case that a man neglects his own other duties, perhaps his own moral condition, and engages in works of public benefit for the sake of notoriety- It is extended beyond the bounds where he neglect all the other calls of conscience, as the hermit who shuts himself up in his cell regardless of all other concerns. It is remarkable that these persons who have the deepest and fullest news of their Creator are the least apt then in this respect- They bestow a share of attention upon all the calls of conscience whose supreme authority they recognize, and walk through their path whatever it be with the same principles of action, viz, the love and fear of God, and Measure all their actions with regard to an immortal life- He is then preserved from all [�]
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    42 and inconsistent causes into which men are led by motives of self love-- This uniformity of character is opposed to what may be called religious pretension or a great attention to outward forms where there is no improvement in the moral condition. The truths of religious belief when really believed must exert a considerable influence on the moral condition, and when they do not, there is a manifest ever in the moral economy, there is little self deception; or an intention to deceive others. From this inconsistency of character there arises two descriptions of persons, they who put an undue importance on outward forms of the truths of religious belief, and they who esteem them of no importance at all. Try to steer between the two extremes. Remember that there is real gold, amid all the imitations of it; and that religion dwells in the heart which alone God inspects.--
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    43 -Part fourth- 1. Our duty may be referred to three heads, 1st, To do justice, 2nd To have mercy 3rd To keep our hearts pure to walk humbly with God-- The first two relate to our acts in regard to our fellow creatures, and for the obedience to their laws we are responsible to the Almighty; but the last refers to a state in which we suppose him to see what is going on in our heart which in consequence must be pure. And should not he who formed it know everything that is passing within it-- We are responsible for the feelings that reign there, as we are told in the bible, God 'looketh upon the heart'--We will divide this part of our duty under four[?] heads--
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    44 2. SI We should always remember that the Deity is present within us, which should warn us to say nothing, or do nothing which would tend to diminish the feeling of reverence which we should entertain for him- We should allow no desire to continue in the heart not any which is impure, not[?] which is trifling, idle or frivolous. In a word, our heart should be not only free from wicked thouts [thoughts], but should also be filled with those either useful to ourself, or others. And too often is this condition neglected-- "An habitual effort to cultivate a sense of the divine presence, and an habitual desire to have the whole moral character regulated by this impression"--
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    45 2SI. There are accordingly two classes of characters. One whose actions indicate his corrupt heart, and another as to whose actions though they be respectable in the sight of man, yet his moral feelings are corrupt before God. This is to be referred to two principles (1) we have before seen that there are certain feelings of justice, benevolence, and veracity due [�?] to our fellow men. They are implanted in by and exercised without any previous knowledge of morality . The disobedience or non compliance with them incites guilt, but they may be practiced from some selfish motive, and consequently no moral approbation can attach to their observance. We are not entitled to merit from the creator, by our discharge of them, the reward is experienced by the pleasure which we feel here and the liberty allowed us to be of the community in which they
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    46 confer benefits- 2 S1(2) A second principle is the aim which we have in [�] pursuits. One man may be influenced by avarice, another by ambition, and a third by a love of esteem, he may act in conformity with all moral laws, yet this may go on without any sense of the presence of the Deity. It is all referable to feelings of a selfish nature. The state of mind then which is under the influence of an habitual sense of the divine presence may therefore be considered in two relations- the one referring more immediately to the Deity, the other to our fellow men. The former seems to include a desire to have every feeling regulated by a sense of his presence. The latter the cultivation of feelings which would tend to make us promote the comfort of our fellow
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    men, or their happiness. Such a man has a character distinguished alike by piety towards God, and high integrity, usefulness, and active benevolence toward man. The man who cultivates such a character will find that he has constant need of watching, and of the help of divine power which he implores and waits for with faith. II A complete submission to the will of Providence. He ruled the world, and wherever he has assigned as a [... ...], rich or poor[?], it is for a wise and good purpose for us in regard to our moral condition, and we have here certain duties to perform. This does not preclude our using every means for the bettering[?] of our condition which is in our power, but it also leads us
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    to consider evils in a new light viz, as improves[?] of our moral condition, prepares us for a future more great, lasting, and blissful. III A consciousness of our meanness, and an humble Spirit. Everyman should have this feeling when he compares himself with the purity of God. And is with this state of mind alone that we can hope for forgiveness from God. IV. Due love towards him, and gratitude for all his mercies towards us. Here follow reflections of which it is needless to give any abstract- Proposal. How the moral feelings may be so regulated as to become a ruling principle of the character. 1st] We see that it is a power beyond the mind which alone can instill into our hearts moral feelings. Acknowledging now this important principle, let us proceed to the operations of the mind itself
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    49 how these truths exercise an influence on the character, this seems to be a complicated process composed of Reason, Attention, and Conception. It is the province of reason not to receive the doctrines that are proposed to the mind without sufficient evidence This being premised, it is the part of Attention, and reason to examine all the relations of these doctrines, and that of Conception to bring things which may be future before us as if present, so as to communicate the same emotions as when present. This continued operation is what is called Faith. It is opposed equally to enthusiasm and total skepticism, which may be both traced to the same cause viz not a sufficient use of judgement. The second office of faith is to place these truths before us that they may have an influence over our conduct. This is to live by faith so that the man who has
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    50 good head knowledge, but does not [share it? as?] and the one who can ingeniously praise benevolence and yet is the very opposite of what he praises is in a sad moral condition. We have said that certain truths bring up certain emotions into the mind. Now although we may have no control over our moral emotions (immediately considered) we can yet have power over the succession of our thoughts by which we can divert the attention to truths which tend to call up these emotions, or we may totally neglect these truths, which will of course be followed by a gradual diminution in the power of our emotions- Thus the sound exercise of faith consists -in admitting truths allowed by the judgment- -in viewing them in all their tendencies- -and in causing them to exercise an influence upon us in the conduct of our lives- It is not the mere profession of certain articles of belief which constitutes
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    51 faith. The many misunderstandings on this subject are arisen from an ignorance of the true influence which faith should have when in this life- We communicate with those around us by our senses. But our moral feelings are different, to be referred to a different constitution, and to be received on evidence totally different. 'To walk by faith and not by sight' well expresses this difference-
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    Style 1 Correctness is a quality in style implies the avoiding the barbarism, the impropriety, and the solecism.
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    Calendar for 1850- January cloudy & extremely cold. Sun came out & moderated in the course of the day- evening clear- moonlight- cold- 2 cloudy, but not so cold- 3 Moderated much- clear day- 4 Damp but no rain, rather cool, in the evening. 5 Clear x cold, particularly so towards evening cold all day+ 6 Rainy early in the morning clear up towards eve 7 fine x clear x pretty cold 8 Misty x unusually warm- 9 Misty-damp x moderate. No rain- 10 Cloudy- moderate afternoon and evening rain- 11. Rain early in morning. Clear up. rather warm- 12. Clear but very warm for the season- 13 14 15 Very clear x cold 16 foggy x cold 17 clear then foggy x rather warmer 18 Clear but rather warm 19 Clear x moderate 20 drizzly, moderate, rain at night- 21 Rained like blizzard all day 22 Clear x moderate-
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    23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 February Pretty cold x clear- 2 Rather dull but moderate- 3 Turning cold- 4 [D...] cold- freezing. 5 [scorching?] cold, freezing 6 Little less cold--north wind 7 less still- but cool enough 8 moderately cold 9 moderated- rain (sick) all day- 10 moderate x clear 11 cold and clear- 12 cold and clear- 13 Rainy x moderate 14 Clear and cold
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    15 Bleak x Dull 16 Beautifully clear, and black frost- 17 Clear x cold- 18 Drizzly x moderate- 19 cold x clear- 20 cold x clear- 21 moderate x clear- 22 Rather drizzly x cold- 23 Bright x clear x cold- {Note on side right saying- no fire.} 24 Warm x clear 25 Warm x clear 26 Warm x clear 27 Very warm for the season 28 do do do do March 1 Warm day- clear 2 -------- ------- 3 -------- ------- 4 Cool, clear x agreeable, though quite a change- 5 6 7
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    March 15 Hard rain all day- warm- 16 clear- trees putting forth their blossoms rain afflicting[?] 17 18 warm like summer, plentiful 19 rains never 20 ceasing 21 weather by degree gets colder 22 x 23 clear, cold enough to day for 24 fire--- 25 Rain, Rain, Rain {Entry 25 and 26 spans over until line 30} 26 Cold. Cold. Cold. 27 28 29 30
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    April 1 Clear & light-
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    {pressed leaf}
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    13 III. The affections are placed in us as a constitutional part of our being as moral and consequently when we fail in them we sink below the scale of a moral being, though in their simple performance we can claim no great degree of merit. He who performs them meets with return from his fellow men and feels a degree of self approbation, He that does not is despised and held contemptible[?] The affections are manifestly for the well being of society. But only when we make great sacrifice of self love[?], and prefer the authority of God to our own interest in a great measure, then only is it when we claim merit for ourselves. There is a certain balance among the affections themselves to keep everything order, as resentment is often restrained by the fear of anger, and the benevolent affections by the self approbations that follow the man incited to practise[?] [...] the love of praise of the anger by on to action.
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    The affections and desires when properly under control give happiness to us and them. When escaping[?] make us and them matched. Notice that God has made man only to enjoy happiness in that state in which he does good to his fellows. Notice the effect that the moral system has had upon the [...]. Section 3d 1 There is doubtless in us a feeling which makes us seek our own comfort, happiness, and gratification which often obtain the ruling power over us and then degenerates into selfishness. 2. A sound self love should lead to us to avoid what is detrimental to our happiness or interest consequently comprehends a due[?] reputation of the desires and exercise of the affections from which spring many sources of happiness, and on the other hand the neglect of them tends to unhappiness, misery or premature death. So that to forego our duty in these to gratify any passion is directly opposed to the dictates of sound self love.
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    It is thus a regulating principle among the affection though quite distinct and inferior to conscience which induces us to act independent of all personal feelings. 3. Self love tends then to make us directly seek our happiness. The affections that of other men. It is seldom that the latter is carried beyond its proper limits, but the former very commonly degenerates into selfishness, which a rational self love should in part present, but if this is not sufficient an appeal is made to conscience or to the principles of moral rectitude. We see this principle illustrated when a man finding faults in his moral institution attempts to combat against them by the principles of moral duty. A man addicted to cold selfishness may sometimes perform great and good acts from which we see that the power of conscience is superior to that of self love and tends to regulate and control it and the affections. Self love may degenerately induce to seek our own gratification at the expense of our duty to them, this should be avoided.
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    Part 2nd The Will. 1. The will or simple rolition is what immediately preceeds our actions and which must take effect unless restrained by external causes or physical inability. 2. What prompts us to will are the affections and desires, deliberating on one when it comes up we decide whether to act upon it or not which is immediately followed by the will. 3. But it is now our province to examine into the principles which influence the will. Some of which under regular circumstances and doubtless uniform in their operations. But they require men to be 1st- Acquainted with the subject. 2nd- To pay full attention to it 3d- To be in a healthy state of moral being.
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    There are four things which influence the will viz-- 1st. the desires. 2nd the affection. 3d Moral responsibility-- 4th Reason or judgement. One acts merely from desire, one from the affections combined with approbation, one from moral responsibility. In gratifying a desire. one merely follows it. one considers how it may effect his interest, health and reputation, another, how it is morally right.- On the conduct of the last we can uniformly calculate. Ditto for the first. But the variety of motives which may influence the third make it beyond our power to count upon his conduct. 5th A knowledge of the truths[?] and causes which influence the will are necessary for its due regulation. Among the first of these are the truths of religion which it behooves[?] every man to know who can and to their voluntary ignorance deep moral quiet is attached. This equally apples to natural and revealed Religion. By natural, we form a simple induction from the works of
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    nature of the might and power of the great incomprehensible one and from our conscience of his moral attributes and our duties, to [o...] which is the duty of every man. Equally so with revealed religion which comes to us with an indisputable evidence and which every man is bound to examine into, to think for himself. He is responsible if his moral character be so disarranged as to prevent him from forming true conclusions and only to fire[?] him in his folly and [...ness]-- Before you allow any opinions to influence you on the great foundation of your belief, see how far it is permitted to give any opinion upon it. As upon immortality-- Byron-- II. The next most important thing after a[c]knowledge of these truths and motives and the foun[d]ation opinion, is our bringing them to hear upon our rolitions. Every man who considers what is going on within him, perceives that when he receives an impulse he has the power either to act upon it or not. And it is this which render man a free agent-- But there are various processes which take place-- 1st there is the inclination of self. 2nd, the moral rules to which it has[?] to be referred-- If these and the inclination agree, then
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    rolition and action immediately follow. But if they do not the inclination will be thrown off by every man who is in a sound state of moral being. Sometimes this does not occur and the desire is the only thing that prompts to action-- But there is a condition here[?] of great importance- A man though he act not from a certain inclination, yet retains the inclination and allows it to grow upon him, thus weakening every day the force of the moral restraints until they have no longer power to hold him and he acts through passion. Such is the economy of the human mind which we see leaves man free at every step, and yet if we trace these sequences backwards we are led to enquire what made him take the first step to vice? a very small matter perhaps at first as a desire long cherished which at each step in its increase, weakened more and more the moral feelings until even the judgement is blinded.
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    There is a third position which it is well[?] to examine: A man, desires any thing, yet restrains himself from interest health[?] etc. but still retains the desire. Here though Society is benefitted still we are guilty in the eyes of God who looks into the heart alone, as if we had done so-- Here we do not thus overcome temptation, it is only the setting one selfish feeling against the other-- III. From the state of mind above referred to there results a moral habit which makes each desire and affection, the more acted upon, requiring the less effort to be acted upon: and on the other hand, the more any moral truth or principle is neglected, the less influence it has over us, until it loses all and even the judgement is prevented. Illustrated deeds of benevolence and the course of a man of crime- Lord Byron-- Here[?] then habit occupies an important place in the constitution of man- It is when any train of mental of physical operation rule
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    place so often that he do not recognise the principle from which they originally sprung-- Thus by continually making our actions proceed from some moral principle, we continue the action as if it were our nature, while we lose sight of the principle from whence it sprung- In the same manner a man by continually violating these same principles may make that way of action his nature (here is the guilt) [...] he no longer perceives them to have any effect on him-- Thus one may form good habits in every respect until they naturally become his way of life while another forms the opposite-- This great truth is then presented to us that our actions spring from habits, And that habits spring from individual actions: Consequently see the importance of habit, and the carefully weighing all our thoughts and actions-- To correct faults, we must keep up the desire to correct them, but in the manner indicated by the [...] of the moral feelings-
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    We see that there can arise then such a state of moral being as cannot be corrected by the mind, consequently the necessity and probability for the power of God to erect itself over it directly through his mercy[?]- Science alone tells us that this is necessary for some, religion tells us for all, that none are pure in the eye of the Holy One. Such are the influences of Habit. There is a case as we said before in which Man is in such a shocking state of being that none but God can restore him to health. But e'er one arrives at this, he feels within the pangs of conscience, then let him try to restore himself let him retire, reflect, encite desire to become better and put his trust in the Almighty. But he must work himself he must resist temptation, [...] himself strengthened at every step he takes, and where now is the improbability that God would refuse to help him- striving[?] with all his might to come from darkness [... ...]--
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    Faith is defined to be the confidence we have that God will protect us The man that opens all his actions to his God, makes his law their prime [...], believes in faith and is warranted to expect a help that will dictate to him his true interest in every extremity[?]--
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    List of Remarkable places read of in Books or heard of. Authorities {right-most} {1} Caen. Death of William the Conqueror Roscoe's life {2} Falaise. Birth of " " " " {3} Hastings. Battle with Harold and William " " {4} Canne Defeat of the Roman by Hannibal Livy {5} Zowareen. The ancient Zama. Hannibal's defeat. do {ditto: Livy} (6) Chatenay. Voltaire was born 1 1/2 league from Parisian 1694. {7} Paris Louis Racine. {8} Himera Stesichorus. {9} Smyrna
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    Part III The moral principle or conscience. -- 1. That there is a power within us which tells us when we are right or wrong, is a fact for which there is no other proof than for every man to look within him.-- It was formerly contested that this power did not exist. 2. It is a power which independent of any previous knowledge or reference to principles, by telling when right or when wrong regulates our individual actions, desires, and affections- 3d. It is thus the regulating power of the moral system, and holds there the same place as reason in the intellectual. By reason we bring in to order, arrange, and plot to use the facts, acquired, through Memory, abstraction, & Imagination; it regulates our actions and when we lose it, we become maniacs. In the same way conscience balances all the desires, self love, and all the affections. And when its operations are suspended we degenerate as much in our
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    3d. moral system as the loss of reason affected our intellectual powers. 4. It is totally different however in its operation as from judgement, since it only examines subjects in a moral point of view. 5. S1 We have hitherto considered conscience in regard to its power of preserving order among the desires and affections, of repressing selfishness, and in keeping up a harmony in the whole moral system, but we will now consider it as pointing out to us the attributes of the Divinity- In strict Philosophical language this should be assigned to reason and conscience continued; but however this be the process is simple- S2 From an exercise of the mind, by looking at the works of nature and ourselves we conceive the opinion of one who created them, of infinite power and wisdom-- S3 When we trace intelligent [...] being backwards, we must come to one of these conclusions, either that this series has been infinite and eternal each producing the other
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    or refer the commencement of the series to one Great Intelligent Being, himself uncaused, infinite and eternal. And this is the only conclusion at which we can arise as presenting any characters of credibility or truth. S4. We learn his goodness and {struck through: mercy} and benevolence from the ample provision he has made for all our wants S5. When we regard his goodness, and power, and wisdom, we cannot conceive him to exist without moral feelings, and we arrive very simply at a knowledge of these through our own mind- We feel in ourselves certain laws of justice, benevolence, veracity and moral purity, to whose observance we attach approbation, and to the disregard of them-- blame + We then by a step of reassuring which carries conviction with it conclude that He who made us preserves these qualities in such an eminent degree as surpasses what we see in the most virtuous. When we go however among men {next 2 pages missing; numbers skip from 26 to 29}
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    S7 When we try to investigate the causes of this moral fall, we find it quite beyond our power. It is more important to trace the remarkable chain of sequences established in the heart of man and by which conscience finally becomes no longer the mover of his actions. We have seen that for a moral harmony there must exist a certain relation between the motives for rolition and the emotions; and between the emotions and actions. When this is violated, the principle loses its power over us (in proportion to the frequency of the violation) as we seen in tracing the mere emotions of benevolence degenerate down into selfishness. S8. A similar train of sequences may be remarked in these great truths which are calculated to act as moral causes. For instance, in the manner before stated we get a[c]knowledge of God and his attributes, when we have done so we feel in ourselves emotions. of [...], gratitude, and obedience- These must be cultivated to lead to conduct[?]- Both the condition and the cause and by a manner most plain to every one, viz the attentive regard to
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    to such truths as to enable them to act as moral causes in the mental economy. The emotions naturally follow, which must be cherished: and a corresponding influence upon the charade is the consequence. But the first step only be neglected, we may not direct the mind [...] proper[?] attention to the truths. the emotions become more feeble, until we look on them as disturbing our peace of mind, and they [...] neglected. S9 When the moral system becomes so corrupt of the same chain of sequences there becomes a confusion of the power of the understanding [^] (regarding the first great principles and moral truth.[ ) ] Being no longer capable of fearlessly examining the attributes of God, he feels a desire to create them so as to suit his present condition. He receives his own speculations then as truth, and makes the inventions of his mind the guides of his conduct.
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    -10- We now come to an interesting point in the philosophy of human nature, viz- how it happens that those men who have been renowned for the most exalted understanding, have scoffed at these truths of religions; and this leads superficial of senses[?] to imagine that these truths do not leave along with them that evidence which is necessary for their belief. But this conclusion is entirely without foundation for their reason that as before remarked in order to examine into these truths, our moral state must not be corrupted, for on this depends the seriousness, and alone all the candour, and love of truth, and desire to be convinced of it which are so necessary for their correct examination-- 11. The last subject to which we shall [...] is Attention- We have already spoken of the benefit arising from this before and treating of the intellectual power and [c...] in a calm
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    deliberate lending of the thoughts to all the facts and circumstances in or touching the particular care before us accompanied by a sincere desire to be persuaded according to these.-- It is the want of this that is immediately perceived after that dissipation of the moral harmony when these inclinations are directed from the path of rectitude-- It is then that the Attention is misdirected or a total want of consideration of the truths and motives by which we ought to be influenced. And the difference in the judgement of men concerning moral actions would not in all probability be so great if this power was brought into play-- It is from the want of it in a great measure that men are lead downward in their cancer, and the first great point and[?] his retracing his steps is where he {word struck through}
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    serious[?] calls it up and deliberates on what he is doing- We allude not here how he is induced to take that step, but this we know that conscience comes to hear its part, and the inquirer is apt to be lead to just conclusion regarding these questions of which he feels the importance to his moral condition-- --Theories of morals-- There is a certain path which if men pursue we esteem right, and call it virtue, and [...] departure from it vice- Some contend that we have innate principles which dictate this line to us, in other words conscience is our guide-- Others say that these distinctions are entirely arbitrary and dependent as circumstances- [Y...] province[?] [y...] is to explain what [y...] circumstances are-- [y...] has given rise to the [...] of morals-- 1st [y...] [... ...] [............] that man is a self
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    being solely intent on his own interest and that his ideas of virtue and vice are only taken power [ye?] enactments of legislators-- [... ...] in order to compel him to obedience attached to the fulfillment of [ye??] praise, and vice versa + 2. I do not Understand the theory of Clarke and Wollaston 3. Utility System of Mr Hume; 4. Selfish theory supported by Hobbes.-- 5. System of DuPaley and objections to it.
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    6S The foundation of all these theories of morals seems to be the idea that there is nothing right or wrong, just or injust in itself; but that it only exists from actual law, or mutual contract. There is another theory which maintains that it is only our idea of the will of God that makes the difference, and that nothing is wrong which he might not have made right- By the immortality of moral feelings as opposed to all these theories we mean that the right, and the wrong is in us independent of any previous knowledge of any kind which thus discloses to us the supreme authority of conscience which leads us to the impression of moral responsibility, and the power of a moral governor, and consequent good, and evil flowing from him. Without this mankind could not be bound together, it is the only tie which keeps them, it is what checks us in our acts of our feeling that what we blame in others will be blamed in us.
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    We have so much common opinion in regard to any of the processes arrived at by the powers of the understanding-- It is fixed, and immutable in the most positive degree, conveying an absolute conviction which admits of no doubt, and no difference in opinion- Such is conscience.-- S7 The system of Dr. Adam Smith is that of sympathy, he says that if we sympathize in the actions and feelings of another we think them [...] and vice versa; and that thus knowing what we think of others, we then apply these rules to ourselves, and thus judge of our conduct-- But this is not the principle of right, and wrong it is only applying rules which deter us from the corrupting influence of selfishness or self love.--
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    -S8- We must not confound reason with the principle from which our ideas of right wrong spring: yet reason is often brought to bear upon our moral decisions, its uses may be [...] as follows- 1. judging of the [e...] set of actions independent of any moral feeling- -2- In the exercise of the affections, whether it should be exercised, or rather restrained- -3- In effecting the means for the execution of what is suggested us by the moral principles. -4- In judging between two opposite points of duty- -5- In enquiring whether any duty is to be performed at all. And in this rise of reason we see great differences in the judgement of men- -6- In judging of a description of cases in which there arises a modification of moral sentiment from attending circumstances- -7- We often say that a man acts
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    from passion instead of reason- -Recapitulation- The idea of right and wrong is fixed immutably in us, it is that which we call Conscience- It is superior to reason, and totally independent of it- and yet reason may be often used in regard to the moral feelings, as stated in the last section. Any such mental process may be considered as the test for particular instances, but not as the principle to which they are to be referred- Virtuous conduct does no[?] point of fact contribute to utility, but it is not this that constitutes an action right- It is solely, and simply what every one feels within him, what is immutable, and what we call Conscience.
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    -Harmony of the moral feelings- Under whatever theory, the moral feelings may be considered it is manifest that there are various classes of them. 1st those desires of the accomplishment of which we think that we would feel gratified. 2nd Those affections by which we feel ourselves bound to contribute to the good of our fellow creatures, & 3d, the duty that we owe to our creator. But it is manifest that there should exist among all these a harmony which should be maintained as follows. He should give to each of these moral feelings their due share of attention. Beginning first with the great duties of justice and veracity he should descend through, Friendship, benevolence, and affection, to the ordinary business of life, such as the acquisition of knowledge, and the recreations which it is right for every one to indulge in, but which when extended beyond their just bounds become vicious[?]- Indeed when any moral feeling is allowed to use up an undue influence it becomes doubtful; and never does this
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    remark hold better than when a man passes his life in pleasure, or merely in business without attention to his present witness or future Judge- Such is the case when one allows benevolence, or interest for the public [...] to overcome the claims which his parents, his children, or any other requirements of justice hold upon him. Above all things should be placed our duty to God with which we should allow no engagements of any kind to interfere. It is from want of consideration of these things, that those who have arrived at the summit of their ambition, and see their life passed, yet its great business (the preparing for immortality) just about to commence. (turn back to 41.)
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    (continued). Justice. Some have asserted that this is the union of the moral principles and an affection. However this be, it is certain that there is a principle in us which gives us the impression that we are to pursue a certain line of conduct toward our fellow men. The requirements of justice are certain points in which every man has an absolute right and no one should interfere with him. viz. what I have a right to have- to do- & 3d what I have a right or expect from others. This is the foundation of natural [...] prudence are one the great foundations for [c...]. Individual justice differs in a measure from corrective and distributive justice. What applies to the one however will apply to the other. Hence Justice is what one man feels bound to do to another and may be divided under
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    the following heads. (1) attending to their interest. (2) not to interfere with their freedom of action (3) preserving their reputation (4) estimating their character (5) judging of their opinions (6) consulting their feelings (7) Preserving or improving their moral conduct And as a general guide to our conduct we are to trust them as we would wish them to trust us. (1) Attention to the interest, person, & property of others constitutes integrity or Honesty and of course implies a respect for their right. It also allows us to take care of our own interest insofar as it does not injure the rights of others. Our rule in all such instances are the great moral principles- to test individual instances we should always consider how we would like to be treated under similar circumstances. (2) This implies respect for our fellow mans personal liberty over which he has no control except where it goes beyond just grounds. It is not
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    contrary to justice to restrain the personal liberty of of another by a mutual contract but it is to make a slave. N. B. [by or Y?] D. H. M. Granted, yet in South Carolina we have not made slaves, and practically, leaving theory aside, we would do them as well as society an ill by letting them have full control over their actions. July 23d 1849. (3) Justice demands that we should have a dear respect to the reputation of others. That is to say that we should speak evil of no man unless there is absolute occasion for it. That we should defend his character when he is not able to do so. That we should not deny the praise due to any one not even our enemy or rival. Not only do we owe a respect for the character of others with other men, but we should ourselves form an opinion of their character and motives. This should be done by exercising a judgement free from all passion[?] and prejudice. When two motives can be
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    (4) assigned to one action, it is the part of justice to lean to mercy, if it can be done in strict accordance to truth. Particularly, when our self-love is touched, we should be careful of our judgement as we often find that what encited our displeasure was fully warranted by circumstance. D. H. M. We should judge of men's actions with as much mercy as is consistent with truth. In judging of the opinions & Statements of others justice is also due. It requires of us to give a patient hearing to their arguments and their tendences, this is called candour and is opposed to a little & captious description. It may be said to be composed of Justice and the love of truth and its constant aim is its discovery under every circumstance. (6) Though we do not offend against the strict requirements of justice, we may by our manners wound other feelings even high minded souls in doing a kindness (as they think) may inflict great pain. We owe here a due regard to these feelings. Under this head we may refer the grounds on which we should lend[?] a man to form an opinion of his character. Spun in flattery [...] do not depreciate it. (his character).
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    (7) While upon the principles here referred we pay due attention to the interest &c of others, it is equally our duty, in no way whatsoever to corrupt the morals of others. Example sends a great mg[?] {short for message?} in forming the character of others. Rules for Justice. Compassion & Benevolence. There are great diversities in situation in this life. This done of the Creator doubtless for many wise purposes which are unseen to us but one very apparent is that by it we are able to bring into play, the benevolent affections which tend to do good to others and especially to ourselves. They prepare us for a future life of leading us to look on things as they really are. They may be referred to almost the same heads as justice. Keeping in mind, that they require more sacrifice of self love than Justice. That we should not exercise these affections at the expense of Justice. The satisfaction felt from their practice is the reward they here bestow. We are guilty if we neglect them.
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    (1) they are due to alleviate the distresses of others. This often requires a great sacrifice of self interest. Our rule by which we appoint measures is the great principle of moral duty and by that before mentioned rule to do as we would wish to be done by. Pecuniary aid is often the easiest but not always the brightest or most useful. Rather a personal display of kindness and compassion: Which is not only always ready to exercise it but is always seeking an object. 2. Benevolence is due to the reputation of others. Not only in avoiding ourselves from injuring their character but to prevent others. To this class belongs the peace-maker. (3.) Benevolence is due to the actions of others. viz, to put them on their best possible footing to make all allowances and to forgive injuries. (4) [...] is due to the feelings of others which we may call courtesy and consist in doing nothing which can irritate the feelings of another. This tends greatly to our own happiness and that of others and is often wanting to the man of real benevolence. N. B [Y or by?] D[?] N M. Who like a rough diamond is yet with the same
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    though it meets with no admiration until it comes polished from the hand of the Jeweller. (5) Benevolence is due to moral degredation. Otherwise we deprive ourselves of the benefit to be derived from its contemplations. It also warns us to lead others from the way of sin. Rules for Benevolence .Veracity. Wherever that veracity is "innate" we have only to look into ourselves and we will see that we rely on every man's love for this for our knowledge for the most part. Without every thing would be in confusion. Unless extinguished by selfish motives there is always a desire to tell the truth. There is in us also a perfect confidence in what is told us until we acquire from experience rules of testimony. These have been before stated, and the subject can be divided under these three heads viz. correctness in ascertaining facts or relating them. in keeping promises.
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    (1) Our first duty here is {struck through: to ascertain the} correctness[?] in ascertaining facts. We should first consider the character of our testimony and whether we are in preparation of all the facts. We should entwine[?] this in forming our opinions, in doing which we should use that judgement before spoken of which estimates everything at its due value. And it further requires us to give up our opinions when we know them to be wrong. (2) The second requirement of veracity is to state accurately the facts acquired through ourselves our testimony And in such a manner as to carry the impression that are calculated. Consequently it is opposed to, falsity in fact, omission, discolouring, joining unconnected things in cause and effect, or making uniform what is only casual. Sincerity is the true statement of our opinions, motives & interactions, and is opposed to Flattery and Hypocrisy.
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    Veracity in fullfilling promises. Nothing but inability should hinder us from this duty, though it be to our own hurt. D. N. Deliberate before your promise. Rules for truth. Friendship, Love, and Gratitude. {sideways on page is written: Rules for gratitude} These affections are connected so that they all arise from qualities in the object to which we are drawn or for favors received by us or others in whom we are interested. The requirements of these require a great sacrifice often of self love and we can offer them to the same heads as justice. Patriotism.- Rules and remarks. This cannot properly be called an affection but a union of the affections. It makes us desire the peace and prosperity of the state and resist[s] all at[t]empts to destroy them. Every man in the community may exercise this affection in his individual or official station by a respect for the authorities and improving the moral and intellectual condition of his fellow men.
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    {written sideways on page: Rules for conduct with Friends, [struck through: relations, acquaintances] brothers and sisters. Father and Mother. Near relations.} {Main entry} Domestic affections. These are the ties and duties which are exercised in the branches of a family which often require a great sacrifice of self love, yet are productive of the greatest and most beneficial results- .Defensive affections. Resentment, jealousy, and anger are doubtless part of man's affections and exercised within their limits serve a wise and beneficial purpose. They imply the consciousness of blameable conduct in others and lead us to punish it. When any injury is done to the public good, the public always take it in hand for the feelings of the injured person never allow him to make due allowances and punish in a manner suited to the offence. These affections should never be called up on trivial occasions, or used beyond their term or boundary. They should never descend to revenge-- Rules for Anger when to allow it to rise To restrain our acting from anger. Jealousy. Its bounds Its rules Resentment. Its bounds Its rules.
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    There are several things which influence the affections viz, 1. Attention. {written sideways on page- Practical reflections that should arise from this-} By Attention, we direct the mind vigorously and intensely to duty toward others, and by a personal almost selfish interest to place ourselves in their cares and consider what is due to us in such circumstances. [^] an [...] of imagination and self love.-- Such is called sympathy. May one contest with the decent discharge of the affections [..?] any objects presents it self but do not thus seek it out, which is a part of moral discipline. The rule for our conduct to others is not sympathy alone, it is by that that we fully appreciate all the circumstances of the case. in the benevolent affections, it is the principles placed within us, the law, and much aided by Conscience. This exercise of the attention, not only enables us to perform well the affections but also exercises influence over our moral condition by making us appreciate things according to their true value,and by thus entering into the sorrows of others we receive a part of the benefit which they are intended to convey.
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    Habit- An emotion, the more repeated, the weaker it becomes, an action, the easier, consequently to those who have been used to sorrow and wish relief and to those inexperienced in these things there will be a great difference- Suppose a tale of sorrow related to a uniform philanthropist and a [...] inexperienced young man, the emotion in the latter is much stronger than that in the former. This is not to be attributed to insensibility but habit has led him to immediately follow up these tales with active benevolence. But if the emotion is allowed to remain in [...] this it will degenerately degrees to cold selfishness and insensibility. See here the danger then of to much acquaintance with suffering where it is not in our power to follow up the emotion with active benevolence [...] and plays- See also the importance of cultivating these emotions only with action in young people.-- -turn back- to page 13
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    Halyattis and the Siege of Miletos. Benefit of Clergy- Herod others[?] & Milesian War-- History Demosthenes Phillip- Race-horses- Clg. Calhoun[?]- Carnage [...] & Butler- Hebrew- Captain Rollins[?] Levy stories
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    Athens citizens voters [500 medimni]- Taxes $1000. 2[200 medimni]- $500 3[200 medimni]-10 mina. 4[.....] --From these were selected Magistrates and Commanders The "areopagus" & "Senate" Senate 500 members 30 yrs old at least
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    Statistics of [...] Expedition. From Ephesus to Cunan 530 leagues 93 day's march From Cunan to [C....] 620 leagues 120 day's march 1155 leagues 21.5 days march 15 months. Stadium 125 paces.
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    Persons acquainted with. Mr James Chapman. Charleston. Mr Walter Post. New York. Sr[?] Don-Ordos. Havanna. Mr Price & Son. Boston Mr De Rournier. Matanzas. George Brinckerhoff. New York. Mr. Fulson [...] of Main Houses Mr Smith. Lieutenant Bowers. U.S. Navy Mr & Mrs Brinckerhoff New York Mr John & James [Bayley/Bayless?] Boston Mr Johnson American [C...] at Matanzas Gene Camel " " " Havanna Mr Thomas Macormick[?] Matanzas et Charleston Mrs Roads Boston Miss Hellacomb[?] Matanzas Putnam Banuroft Boston.
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    Monday March 18. -Go to Auzden & Gregg- -Pay [...]- get too the punder[?]- commence [...] reading- [N...] Sunday- Bring up all the Books arrange the Spanish, French & American papers- {upside-down section says-} Monday exercise until 1/2 7 oclock- from 1/2 7 to 8, select [...] for composition- -9 [...] with girls- 1/2 10, study History- ----------------- 1/2 2 leisure time 1/4 3 History--
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    Miscellaneous things Passports. Best Hotel. Lawyers. Government of Havanna. Police. mode of Taylors[?] working. Drgs.[?] [O...] Price of lodging and eatables[?]. Best places to walk and ride in Havanna. Seasons and Spanish news for fruits[?] Naranjos=Oranges Platanos=Bananas Legars: Spanish Lawyer Passports Ice Flour and Fish Monopolies. Ordas. Execution of Prisoners. Selling in the streets. Panama Hats. Reduction of Price Monasteries. Convents. Barracks. Limestone. Degeneration of fruits.
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    {drawing of a volante as described in diary} a volante {drawing of tall boot} Boot of a Cassaliero {drawing of a square with designs} Back of a jacket {drawing of a tall rectangular window with arch across top and many lines both horizontally and diagonally across} an Havanna Window
Title:
David Henry Mordecai Travel Diary (1849)
Creator:
Mordecai, David Henry
Date:
1849
Description:
Diary of David Henry Mordecai's trip down east coast to Florida Keys, description of town, wreckers, drunkenness of Key West; description of Havana, and Mantanzas, Cuba. Also has notes on school subjects, reflections on various topics, notation of "Jews - the persecuted race," slavery in SC, pressed botanic specimens, details of weather first quarter of 1850, maps and drawings.
Collection:
Thomas J. Tobias papers, ca. 1790-1970
Contributing Institution:
College of Charleston Libraries
Media Type:
Manuscripts
Personal or Corporate Subject:
Mordecai family
Topical Subject:
Jews--Southern States--Diaries, Jews--Southern States--History--19th century, Jews--South Carolina--Charleston--History, Travel writing--History--19th century
Language:
English
Shelving Locator:
Mss 1029 (5A/11)
Material Type:
image/jpeg
Digitization Specifications:
750ppi, 24-bit depth, color, Epson Expression 10000XL, Archival Masters are tiffs.
Copyright Status Statement:
Public Domain.
Access Information:
For more information contact Special Collections, College of Charleston Libraries, Charleston, SC 29424.