J. F. R. Papers, 1849-1855

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    Journal New Orleans- November 25th. Rain-anniversary of the [illegible] association. Turned out and were addressed by Christian Roselin at the [illegible] - Last Monday the odd Fellow, Hall was dedicated a [torn page] the bosses of the city turned out in large numbers. They [torn page] [illegible]. The ceremonies were performed [torn page] of the Hall before a large audience [torn page] principally the ladies. Prof. Divinitry [?] delivered [torn page] which was rather long and tedious. A large [torn page] composed of vocal and instrumental performers [torn page] a companion feature in the attraction-Read [torn page] "Days of Bruce" a very interesting production [torn page] Grace Aguilar. It seems to be a continuation [torn page] Scottish Chiefs-commencing with the exploits [torn page] Robert Bruce shortly after the execution of the [torn page] celebrated this with Wallace. I have not enjoyed a novel more since reading The Scottish Chiefs years ago--[torn page] was loaned to me by Mrs. P. The Lecture in the Medical Department of the Ministry of Louisiana commenced this week. I heard the introductions of Drs. Stine and Hunt. The class members now probably a hundred and fifty- it will probably go to two hundred which will exceed any former class-One of the students, Robert Wood of Jefferson County Mississippi is studying in my office-his first course-the democrats are holding ward meeting tonight [illegible] here for the purpose of sending delegates to the convention to nominate candidates for state offices under the new Constitution; also to select candidates for the legislature- The [torn page] [illegible] did [illegible] last night. Read tonight a few pages in Carpenter (Phynology) his advice to [torn page] young men on page 310 (note) is worth referring to [torn page] [torn page] ember 26th Clear, cold, bracing day. [torn page] Bed-called to my brother early this morning [torn page] more alarmed than most out to dinner [?] [torn page] Fox on call- just from Miss. On his way
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    to see his son Raymond on the [illegible] below here- The [torn page] Whigs held mass meetings at the Arcade for organizing the party for vigorous action at the coming state elections. Preamble & resolutions [torn page] passed and addresses delivered by Dr. Price and [torn page] dall Hunt-left after the latter concl[torn page] tinued at 10 'clock. Nov. 27 Clear & cold- white port this morning [torn page] [illegible] I [illegible] of the lesson-would [illegible]- [torn page] in Carpenter, went downtown. Nov. 28 Sunday- Cold, breezy, fair day-[torn page] Mr. [Illegible] preach at Canal St. Episcopal [torn page] I never heard the service more indifferently [torn page] the sermon however, was remarkably fine. that gentleman's discourses generally are. [Torn page] Visited in the evening (H) and after reading a few pages in Carpenter retired at 11 O'clock [Torn Page] out yet- probably on a spree-bad habits for [illegible] men of his age and recreation-it seems to be [illegible] that medical students should lead irregular lives in this as well as other cities - it should not be so- of all others the physician should be sober and youth is the time for proper habits to be formed in this respect-but the junior [illegible] of [illegible] here have poor examples let them by their professors on the sense of sobriety-from out of the seven Chairs are occupied by men very fond of their Tea. Nov. 29th Monday- Weather clear & fine. Nov. 30- Tuesday- Ballard in town-left his home [torn page] [illegible] the night before- looks well that [illegible] [torn page] perfects in the medical line- dined at the Veranda [torn page] champagne flowed freely of errand. No one hurt [illegible] [torn page] Night Fox stayed with me. Dec. 1st. Ballard left this evening. Also Fox [torn page] Country [illegible] formally resided [torn page] with Dr. Foster and Head to the Theater-
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    Logan in Romeo and Juliet-she acts finely-Her style is altogether different from Miss Cushman's and she is probably not so finished an actress but she pleases me exactly. OLD Logan the father, appeared as the [illegible] duke (Or Jaques) in the Honeymoon [torn page] the character worse performed-the at[torn page] hole long and rather [illegible] especially [torn page] it being Miss L's Cast appearance & her [torn page] night quite a large audience greeted her- [torn page] a case of Cholera today-nearly in collapse when I saw him- December 4th- The weather for several days has been [illegible] today particularly so- visited last night [torn page] on Magazine St. Saw his two daughters, just from [torn page] north (Hartford Conn.) Very nice young ladies, indeed- [torn page] spent two hours delightfully- danced, listened to music, etc. The youngest seems to be much the most vivacious and entertaining in the family-she has been spending several years in New England at school and is quite in raptures with everything in Yankeedom-prefers those regions infinitely as a place of residence to our sunny climate and would be too happy to be able to go there to live-some school girl love seraph is no doubt at the bottom of her predilections. Received a letter from David. My sister's little son Eddy very ill with Scarlet fever. Dangerously so. He is my godson as well as nephew-the only child I can stand for as [illegible]-he is now about six years of age and two years ago was the most interesting little fellow I ever knew-quite the pet of the family. Visited tonight a musical service at Madam D[illegible] on Dauphine Street. Some of the young ladies played finely-too much time however is no doubt devoted to this accomplishment useless accomplishment might be added for how few keep up music three years after learning their instructors especially if they marry & yet they [torn page] banging from morning to night as if their very
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    existence [sic] depended upon learning a few operas and silly songs. Dr. Klein at Mr. N's on Carondelet St. coming home-conversation confined principally to California & the success of various fortune hunters. Went home at 9 1/2. read some in Johnson (Samuel) [torn page] retired at 10 1/2 decidedly drowsy [torn page] late for the last few evenings. Dec. 13- The past week much as not been [torn page] Thursday the ninth visit: The great funeral [torn page] to the memory of Clay, Calhoun and Webster [torn page] for several weeks before great to do was made in the papers of its probable splendor, which induced many people from the country to witness-high expectations more than realized--it was the grandest affair gotten up in this quarter & the expense attending must have been immense-the procession was probab[torn page] three miles long-composed of military, firemen, charitable associations, masons odd fellows, [torn page] [pupils?] of public schools etc. The funeral car and the cenotaph erected on Lafayette Square were the principal features in the preparations-the latter still stands & is quite an imposing structure-pity that what it was built of granite or marble. Eulogies were delivered by Chief Justice Eustace on Calhoun at the Lyceum Hall, by Christian Roselin's on Webster at the Presbyterian Church and by Judge McCaleb on Clay at the Odd Fellow's Hall-The addresses will probably be published. Home in the principal streets were hung with mourning and [illegible] thing conducted in a manner worthy of the occasion. Feby 4th 1853- Up to this time the city has been unusually filled with visitors and the inhabitants seem determined to enjoy the season from the number of parties given-the soirees at the Hotels have been on a grand scale generally, those of the St. Louis particularly-This much of matters seem to be carried by the early commencement
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    of Lent this year-things during the forty-days with a large portion of the people here are rather great, especially with the Roman Catholics & numerous Episcopalians. East Pascagoula, Miss.-Oct 19th, 1853- [torn page] that the above diary [torn page] time, nearly two years ago [torn page]-After it closes-The Spring [torn page] 53 my movements were interesting & some [torn page] the scenes gone through were exciting & not a little adventurous. In May I was given [torn page] surgeonry of the steamer "Falcon" which [torn page] direct, from New Orleans to Aspinwall [torn page] Bay on the Isthmus of Panama & the Republic of New Granada-In this [torn page] I remained for six months, spending about half of the time in New Orleans-Capt. [torn page] (now of the Geo Law) was the commander- [torn page] excellent man & a clever companion-[torn page] the fall of '53 the Falcon started for New York [torn page] undergo some necessary repairs-Captain [torn page] came out to relieve Capt. Bray [?] & carry [torn page] on-I remained as medical officer-We [torn page] from New Orleans on the 11th of November- [torn page] four days in Havana & remaining [torn page] [illegible] put to sea again but were compelled [torn page] return again after an absence of near two days for repairs-this time we stayed in port a week affording an excellent opportunity for seeing the sights of the Queen of the Antilles especially it's chief city Havana. Fine scenery, formidable forts plenty of soldiers, holiday parades, bull fights, etc. were indulged in to our heart's content. Havana has a decided foreign look-resembling not in the least any of our cities-narrow streets, [illegible] built houses, volantes [a two wheeled carriage], shops, drinking
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    houses-all on a different scale from what we are in the habit of seeing-the people of Havana are notorious for the remarkable neatness [nearness?] with [torn page] [illegible]-the gentleman for a lady is never seen walking the streets-they shop in [torn page] Volantes-the store-keeper bring[torn page] & wines out to them-rath[torn page] customers are would think. The ride [torn page] not sufficiently wide for the cadena [? trans: chain] to walk-[torn page] not more than two feet, hardly enough for [torn page] man of even small dimentions [sic]- strangers are not allowed to visit the 'Moro' castillo- it is a formidable looking work-but i doubt it could withstand the Yankees-The Bishops [torn page] three mules from the city-is naturally a most lovely place-there is attempts at a collection of wild animals but a few wild cats, panthers & alligators complete the list. It seems to be going very much to ruin. As I say, after remaining in Havana a week [torn page] [illegible] we set sail again for New York. [torn page] Less than five miles it was discovered our progress was even slower than at [torn page] having plenty of supplies on hand however was determined to go on. in six days [torn page] had to pull into Charleston in distress-[torn page] or lay around another week & did not to New York before the 7th of December-27 days from [torn page] New Orlean's--the longest passage on record for steamer. My intention on arriving at New York was to go before the [illegible] board of Medical Examiners. No difficulty was encountered in obtaining a permit & on the 27th of December 1853 I presented myself-the results I did not know for two months afterwards. The intervening time was spent in Philadelphia-of course
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    most agreeably-when I learnt of my success before the Board I [illegible] to Washington for the purpose of getting immediate duty-I was ordered to New Orleans to wait-when arriv[torn page] bout the middle of March 1854 I was immed[torn page] this place to take the Medical [torn page]ilitary Asylum- Major Vander[torn page] Gov't & secy & treasurer of the [torn page]-we remained here together until the [torn page] [spring?] of this year (1855) when the major having [torn page] [illegible] to the 2nd Cavalry was relieved [torn page] the late Capt. C.G. Merchant- 8 Feby. The latter [torn page] in charge until his death which [torn page] about the first of September- This [torn page] & some other circumstances determined [torn page] commissioners to take up this Branch [torn page] the Military Asylum & Lewis Merchant the 2nd [illegible] (brother of Capt. M) was [torn page]out to self property etc & transfer the inmates Harrodburg & Lesterby [?] - Everything but the transference of the men was affected by Lewish M. This was deferred in consequence of the yellow fever prevailing on the Mississippi River-the men remaining in my charge-Next Thursday 25th visit. I expect to start. At which time I shall renew this journal & try and keep it up more frequently in future. Oct. 25- The mail boat very late-and I considered it best to retire thinking it would be a failure setting off tonight-but about 12 I [illegible] was aroused by tiding of the "boat's in sight" dressed hurriedly & all hands including my five [illegible] managed to get to the Ricehead in time. Found that the boat had been detained the night before on Grant's Pass.
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    26th Got to the terminus of the [illegible] [torn page] rail road just too late for the 11 o'clock [torn page] cars-but arrived in New Orleans by 12. [torn page] passage on the "Ben Franklin" to start [torn page] next evening for Louisville- [torn page] St. Charles to remain [torn page] went out & met with Ballard-[torn page] joicing of course-souls better than [torn page] saw him & is in excellent health- [torn page] sports much be revived from some [torn page] considerations-I should like to be prese[torn page] on the festive occasion but will [torn page] able in all probability-Happy fell[torn page] I wish I could be in a like condition-[torn page] called upon Gen'l Trugg family this [torn page] found the old Gen'l very chatty & [torn page] rather quiet as she always is in the old mans presence-Mrs. Dryer [Meyer?] the married daughter, wife of Col. M. [illegible] I like hugely-a perfect lady on all occasions & and on any circumstances. The Gen'l gave me a letter to the Surgeon General to whom I am going to apply for service in anticipation of my co[torn page] mission. 27 B & I walked the streets quite sufficiently-made various purchases of clothing for a cold climate. Dined at 3-had Dr. Foster, an old chum of Philadelphia memory with us-[illegible] flowed pretty freely-After dinner left for the [torn page]
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    in company with B., Parted on the levee-he taking the "Natching" [?] for Donald Grenich [?]. Practically on fire the 'Ben Franklin' got under way-Very few passengers-Among [torn page] Lt. Col. Monis of the 4th Inf: US [torn page] too boys-They are veterin[torn page] Texas where the colo[torn page] in command. He is on his way [torn page] for Fort Vancouver Oregon-but [torn page] leave his children in Ohio-Miss M. [torn page] quite a card-but vows she will never [torn page] to outgrow-Boat detained an hour by fog. [torn page] gently did not pass Baton Rouge until [torn page]day morning 9 o'clock the 28th-Here two officers-Capt Barry, of the 20 Artillery in command of Baton Rouge & Capt Rodman ordained dept. in charge. [torn page] the arsenal at the same place-got on board-they are en route for Fort M[illegible] to sit on a court martial for the trial of Major Andrews [illegible] & Capt Henshaw. They leave us at Napoleon. 29th Arrived at Richburg about 11'O'Clock-stopped only a few moments-I saw my Brother Dick whom I had telegraphed-& also Schlator on the Capital Palace on his way home to [illegible] [torn page] The weather perfectly clear & beautiful stopped at Napoleon when we lost the officers spoken of above, much to our regret. The prospect ahead of them is not very pleasant. Before reaching [Illegible] They will have to travel about 400 miles by land. At Beachfort this considerable add [illegible] apparent to our passengers-among them a newly married couple & a young lady [illegible] [torn page] got on during the night at Kentucky
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    Bend-I find this Boat a very fine one and her running qualities cannot be complained of-the Captain is a jovial old fellow & has travelled this river for [torn page] years-this is his two hundred [torn page]ip. [torn page]Still getting along [illegible] [torn page] passengers-apprehensions are being fel[torn page] subject of our not getting up the Ohio on [torn page] of low water- may have to reship- Weather [torn page] begins to look like change-dark night [torn page] lightening [sic]- November 1st-Thursday-This day week [torn page] Pascagoula-Pleasant voyage so far[torn page] fog this morning & some rain-passed Cairo[torn page] muddy dirty looking place-The boat is going [torn page] on very cautiously occasionally scraping to a [torn page] made the acquaintance of Dr. Dudley, son [torn page] Dr. B.W. Dudley of Lexington-he has a plantation in Mississippi & does not practice-sensible man he-has devoted considerable time to the study of his profession-spent two years in Paris-seems to be a modest unassuming man nevertheless-
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    Premier Exercice-Ten Quil exercice avez-vous, monsieur. Avez-vous le premier exercice. Avez-vous le pai[torn page] Oui, Monsieur j'avile pain. Avez-vous votr[torn page] pain [torn page] mon le pain. Avez-vous le balai. J'ai [torn page] avez-vous le savon. J'ai le savon. [torn page] votre savon. J'ai mon savon. Quil savon avez-vous. J'ai votre savon. Avez-vous votre sucre. J'ai mon sucre. Quil sucre avez-vous. J'ai votre sucre. Quil papier avez-vous. J'ai mon papier. Avez-vous mon papier. j'ai votre papier. Quel pain avez-vous. J'ai mon pain. Quel balai avez-vous. J'ai votre balai. Avez-vous votre exercice. Oui Monsieur, j'ai mon exercico. Quil exercice avez-vous. Bon soir Bon jour, madamemoiselle. Comment vous portez-vous, Madame? Tres bien. Merci. Seconde Exercice 20. Avez-vous mom beau cheval. Oui, monsier, je l'ai. Avez-vous mon viene soulier. Non Madamoiselle je ne l'aipas. Quil chien avez-vous. J'ai votre joli chien. Avez-vous mon mauvais papier. Mon monsieur je ne l'aipas. Avez vouz le bon drap de velour. Oui, Monsieur je l'ai. Avez-vous mon vilain fusil . Non Monsieur je ne l'ai pas. Quil fusil avez-vous. J'ai le vas de fil. Avez vous mon bas de fil. Qe n'ai pas votre bas de fil. Avez-vous mon fusil de boise. Non, monsieur je ne l'aipas. Avez vous le viene pain. Qe n'aipas le [torn page] pain. Quil soulier avez-vous. J'ai le beau soulier de velour. Quel soulier de velour. Votre soulier de velour. Quel savon avez-vous.
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    J'ai mon vieux savon. Quel sucre avez-vous. J'ai le mauvais sel. Quel exercice avez-vous. J'ai mon seconde exervive. Avez-vous le premier exercice. Non Madame je ne l'aipas. Quel chapeau, avez-vous. J'ai [torn page] mauvais chapeau de papier. Avez [torn page] vilain soulier de bois. Non Monsieur [torn page]l'aipas. Quel vocabulaire avez-vous [torn page] le seconde. Avez-vous le premier. Oui [torn page] l'ai. Troiseme Exercice 3 ml. Avez-vous mon bon vin. Je l'ai. Avez [torn page] vous l'or. Je ne l'aipas. Avez-vous l'argent. [torn page] Monsieur je lai. Qu' avez-vous. J'ai le bon fromage. J'ai mon habit de drap. Avez-v[torn page] mon bouton d'argent. je ne l'aipas. Quel [torn page] avez vous. J'ai votre bon bouton d'or. Quel cordon avez-vous. J'ai le cordon d'or. Avez-vous quelque chose. J'ai quelque chose. Qu' avez-vous (J'ai le fil d'or.) J'ai le bon pain. J'ai le bon sucre. Avez-vous quelque chose de beau. Je n'ai sien de beau. J'ai quelque chose vilain qu' avez-vous de vilain. J'ai le vilain chien. Avez-vous quelque chose de joli. Je n'ai sien de joli. J'ai quelque chose de vieux. Qu avez-vous de vieux. J'ai le fromage de vieux. Avez-vous pain. J'ai faim. Avez-vous soif. Je' n'ai pas soif. Avez-vous sommeil. Je n'ai pas sommeil. Je avez-vous de beau. J'ai votre chien de beau. Qu' avez-ous du mauvais. Je n'ai [torn page] de mauvais. Quel papier avez-vous. J'ai votre bon papier. Avez vous le beau cheval. Oui, Monsieur, je l'ai quel sonlier avez [torn page]
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    [torn page] vieux sonlier de velour. Quel [torn page] J'ai votre beau bas de fil. Quatrieme Exercice [torn page] ce livre. Non Monsieur je ne l'a[torn page]livre avez-vous. J'ai celui du vos[torn page] mon pain ou celui de boulanger. [torn page] votre. J'ai celui lue boulanger. [torn page] z-vous celui du voisin cheval. Non monsieur [torn page] ne l'ai pas. Quel cheval avez-vous. J'ai [torn page] lue du boulanger. Avez-vous le joli d'or cordon de mon chien. Je ne lai pas. Quel [torn page] avez-vous j'ai mon cordon d'argent. Avez-[torn page]ous mon bouton d'or ou celui du tailleur. le [torn page] pas le votre. J'ai celui du tailleur. Quel cafe avez0vous. J'ai celui du voisin. Avez-vous sommeil je n'ai pas sommeil. J'ai faim. Avez-vous soif. Je n'ai pas soif. Quel bas avez-vous. J'ai du mien. Avez-vous votre bas de fil du mien. je n'ai pas le votre. J'ai du mien. Quel soulier avez-vous. J'ai celui du voisin soulier de bas. Qu'avez-vous le n'ai mien. Avez-vous quelque chose de beau. Je n'ai mien de beau. Avez-vous quelque chose de mauvais. Je n'ai quelque chose de mauvais. Avez-vous faim du soif. J'ai faim. Quel exercice avez-vous. J'ai le quatrieme avez-vous votre celui du voisin exercice.Non monsieur j'ai le mien. Avez-vous votre velour. Je ne l'ai pas. Avez vous votre cafe. Le n'ai pas du votre. J'ai celui du boulanger avez-vous velui du voisin chandelier d'or. Non Monsieur j'ai du votre. Quatrieme Exercico Avez-vous mon baton, du celui de de mon ami. J'ai celui de votre ami. Avez-vous votre de ou celui du tailleur. J'ai le mien. Avez-vous
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    celui de mon fiere habit ou le [torn page] celui de votre fiere. Avez-vous votre [torn page] celui de l'homme. J'ai celui [torn page] Avez-vous [torn page] votre ami. Je ne l'ai pas. Avez [torn page] froid. Avez-vous peur. Je n'a[torn page] Avez-vous chand. Je n'ai chau[torn page] Mon habit ou celui der Tailluer. [torn page] du Tailleur. Avez-vous mon chandelier [torn page] ou celui du voisin. J'ai le votro. Avez [torn page] votre papier ou le mien. J'ai le votre. Avez-vous votre fromage ou celui du boulang[torn page] J'ai le mien. Quel drap avez-vous. J'ai [torn page] du Tailleur. Avez-vous le vieux bois celu[torn page] mon fiere. La ne l'ai pas. Quel savon avez-[torn page] J'ai celui de on fiere beua savon. Avez-vo[torn page] mon fusil du bois ou celui de mon fiere. J'ai le votre. Avez-vous le soulier devotre[?] ami [torn page] oui, Monsieur, j'ai le soulier de velous de [torn page] ami. Qu'avez-vous de joli. J'ai celui de mon ami joli chien. Avez-vous mon beau ou mon vilain baton. J'ai votre vilain baton. Avez-vous le seconde exercice de votre bon ami. Non, j'ai le troisieme. Quel savon avez-vous, j'ai le votre. Avez-vous le pain de votre ami. Non, J'ai le votre. Avez-vous celui de l'homme. Non, Je ne l'ai pas. Avez-vous le bouton d'argetn. Non, J'ai celui d[torn page] Avez-vous le premier ou le seconde j'ai le seconde. [illegible] bien. French abandoned last March-To be taken up again the Lord knows when but little progress made.
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    Notes Taken by J/F/R/ on Professor Jackson's lectures in the University of Pennsylvania delivered during the session of 1849-50. Lecture 1. Branch of the institutes of medicine first established in this school by the late Prof. Rush. In most colleges Physiology alone is embraced under this head. Derived from [illegible] (Degree the "Laws and Principles of Medicine". The Corpus Medicinal facts and principles on the body of medicine. Far more extensive than physiology. The objects of the "Institute" are to ascertain the proper conditions of life-actions. The circumstances producing diseased life action. When this is found out we have a basis to go upon. Public and private [illegible] preventing etc. can only be established upon these foundations. The objects of this chair also are the operations-the laws of life must first be established before this can be considered. Therapeutics must be to a great extent empirical but enlightened by science. In lecturing on the "institutes" we are engaged in constructing medicine into a science. Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen & in some few animals a little sulphur [sic] and phosphorus a few metals and some salt, constitute the whole structure of living beings including of course man in all the magnificence of his intellect & proportions. Lecture 2. The difference between science empiricism and physiology are different degrees of man's intelligence. Organic forms lie at the basis of life action. Primary forms of organic beings Albumen[?]. This is not capable of itself to make
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    an organ or tissue-chemical changes must take place. becomes fibrim etc. Primary forms, nuclei granules or cells-from these tissues are formed and from them organs. The molecules of bodies are different from each other. The forces which cause actions are in the molecules. Diseases are cured by the molecular change we bring about-in the molecules of the seat seat [sic] of the complaint. By force we mean the unknown cause of action. This life-force differs from all others. All these forces inside in the molecules. The greater the complexity the more forcible the actions the cessation of molecular action constitutes death. The nature of a body depends upon the arrangement of the molecules composing it. The obstruction of a single atom or molecule changes the nature of a part. Lecture 3 Laws of Molecular action. Atoms or molecules or equivalents-the ultimate parts of a body. They differ according to bodies & the extraaction of any one of them gives us a new body or matter rather. Albumen [?] under the process of life-actions must produce the primary forms-From this it rises to a tissue and on to an organ-The moment we have a form we have an organ. Rather, force & forms give function. Life-action is a creative process by which the parts of the body are continually being rebuilt. This action also consists in a birth and a death. The first commencement of life is a germ or nucleus derived by an organic or life-action. The next condition the constant presence of plasma. Thirdly the fluid plasma or water. Fourthly Oxygen in the proportion in which it exists in the atmospheric air. Lastly Calorie, changing in degree according to the condition and habits of the animal.
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    Tissue germ is analogous to the ovo-germ. This is to the tissue what the ovogerm is to the whole organism. There is a specific germ for every tissue and life-action must be going on for their development. The germ follows the condition of the plastic material. hence in bad conditions of this we have altered structure. The plasma or organizable material is indispensable to life action. Lecture 6. The second indispensable material-Plasma. This is drawn from the blood which is the source of everything in the animal economy. There are two portions of the blood. 1st Sigur Sauguinius or Plasma-this is The being in a fluid state. The fibrim intermediate between crude material and the more perfect organizations-Albumen and fibrim are the crude materials. The quantity of this consumed every twenty four hours is from 2 to three ounces. This must be renewed very rapidly, and hence we find them in the blood in constant quantities. IF these principles are in the least deficient the proper reconstruction cannot properly go on. We have disease. Here we see the importance of proper food-unless it has the proper protein constituents it will not rightly nourish. Nitrogenized food simply will not do-Protein must be present-Everything capable of being absorbed by the alimentary surface is taken into the blood repels, hence the liability of noxious material being introduced & here we see the alternative action of medicines which get into the blood bring about entire revolution & finally there is a return to health. We continually have increase of these essential matters-as in inflammation from fibrim is sensibly increased. Infrequently however, the plasma becomes deficient as we see in the emaciation of poverty-Famine is attended with this condition & also Typhoid fever.
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    The plasmic material is the product of vegetable manufacture-which must be reduced to albumen before entering the blood. The digestive organs affect this condition-which must themselves be in healthy condition. Respiratory disease affects these organs as the whole nourishing process. The plasmic material is frequently perverted as in scrofulous subjects-there is a superabundance of Albumen. Also in molecular disease-which is an attempt at organization of imperfect material-an abortive structure-in this manner cachesias have their origin-as smallpox etc. ... Lecture 7th. All diseases are connected with the Materies Morbi- or the ill condition of the plasmic material-Human health and mortality depends a great deal upon the cooking of food. To bring it into proper state for nourishing the body-the plasmic elements are perverted in scrofula-here the gelatinous elements predominate over the fibrous (if it may be so expressed-In Tuberculosis there is an organism which dies instantly-In scrofula there is a lymph congestion-the former is solid and incurable if taken place to any extent-in the latter relief can be afforded by proper treatment-in Cancer there is imperfect plasma-in smallpox the Marteries Morbi is in the blood-if there should be a small amount the patient is safe, if not, the contrary-Disease is the struggle of the organs to get rid of the Materies Morbi-the business of the physicians is not to suppress these symptoms but to regulate them. The plasma may lose altogether its properties as such as in malignant diseases. This may be produced by the introduction of poison into a part rich in capillaries. Takes into the stomach the poison of reptiles is innoxious.
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    Poisons will form in the blood without being introduced-we see animals fall from fatigue the smallest quantity of blood taken from them will produce death-suppression of the excretions will cause death by contaminating the blood, by the formation of ammoniacal products-in Rheumatism, gout, etc, we see the two great collections of Materies Morbi-which are not eliminated by the excretions-Earthly [illegible] etc. Lecture 8. Aomospheric air-an aerial ocean-constituents Nitrogen-79-parts Oxygen-21 and it also contains more [illegible] carbonic acid and a [illegible]vapour diffused in it. Atmospheric pressure at surface of the earth fifteen pound to square inch-The amount of Oxygen in water is 25 percent. Vitiated matter in the air-as noxious gases, become rapidly diffused according to the law of diffuse & are inert. Pressure of the atmosphere varies according to the state of the weather-in [illegible] days it is light, but feels heavy because the body is not buoyed up by the pressure of the dry day. Plants from absorbing oxygen at night-combustion, putrification of animal matter-all vitiate the air-more so in particular localities; as in cities we have a constant cloud of deteriorated matter, hence the mortality is fifty percent greater than in the country-(the importance of mortality statistics decrees upon the students urges to look to the matter when they go home) In marshy warm climates the air is contaminated. Inspirations in a minute 15-2/10 cubic feet of air breathed in 24 hours-one fifth of the oxygen taken into the lungs is consumed-160 grains of solid garbon is disengaged every hour, which is equal to ten ounces every 24 hours. This takes place by the diffusion of gases. For every
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    1000 parts of carbonic acid which escapes from the lungs. 1173 parts of Oxygen goes in-in illy ventilated apartments oxygen is diminished. A less quantity gets to the lungs & hence headaches etc are increased-10 cubic feet of carbonic acid escapes every 24 hours-one part of this gas in a hundred in the air will produce uncomfortable feelings-12 percent will occasion asphyxia. Sulphuretted hydrogen and Sulphuret of ammonia are more noxious than carb. acid one 15/100 past of the former in the air is fatal to birds-the 9/100 to dogs. Oxygen is carried into the system for the purpose of producing the chemical changes-is a destructive agent-produces heat-an essential to life action-these phenomena belong to the whole series of animals & also in plants which consume Oxygen and give off carbonic acid in the dark-the water given off from the lungs during respiration holds animal matter in solution, which will become putrid when confined. Typhus contagion is generated from results of this kind. This disease is endemic in most parts of Europe particularly in England where people live sleep and cook in the same apartments to a great extent. Keeping out fresh air and crowded with occupants their dwellings are scenes of poverty sickness and distress. Hospital gangrene, jail-fever and results from crowding & insufficient ventilation. The cause of ships producing ship-fever-ventilation belongs to public hygeine [sic] & is too much neglected. The influence of the profession should be exercised in this matter. Lecture 9. Calorie the 4th condition necessary to life-action-Thompsonian Aphorism-"Heat is life, Cold death"-every living being is an apparatus for generating heat-solid carbon consumed in man amounts to ten ounces daily-&the amount of heat
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    evolved will raise 143 pounds of water from 30 degrees to 98 Fah. The food is divided into two portions-one for repair, the other for the production of animal temperature-the plastic material must contain nitrogen-that which generates heat is non nitrogenized. The former: albumen, fibrim, [illegible] gelatinum (?) latter fat spirits etc: called calorifacient elements. The generation of heat takes place in every tissue, not in lungs alone or any particular part of the body-amount of blood going to a part depends upon the life action it contains-commodity is regulated by the demand-heat is is [sic] more important in the maintenance of live-action than plastic material. Lecture 10. Of heat be applied to a patient & the reaction raises the temperature above ordinary one or two degrees-always beneficial-if below the reverse-& if only to normal temperature doubtful-heat must be used according to the constitution of the subject. The whole phenomena (to recapitulate) of life action consists in the production of special material plasma-from albumen-from which arises forms-this material & form are always present-These phenomena only take place under (these certain) conditions-the slightest variation gives disturbance-so we have A-germ-endowed with life force. B-Plastic material . C-Oxygen. D-Heat or calorie. The organs are the means for the maintenance of life action-when their conditions are normal the functions are properly performed. The phenomena of radical forces, heretofore considered of organic life-shows us the seal of almost all pathological actions-are in fact dependent upon them-they are the statics of life-Passive life.
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    Carpenter in his human physiology speaking of reproduction says: "the instinct (desire) when once arduous (even though very obscurely felt)acts upon the mental faculties and moral feelings, and this becomes the source, though almost unconsciously to the individual of the tendency to form that kind of attachment towards one of the opposite sex, which is known as love. This tendency cannot be regarded as a simple passion or emotion, since it is the result of the combine operations of the reason, the imagination and the moral feelings, and it is the engraftment (so to speak) of the psychical attachment upon the more corporeal instinct, that a difference exists between the sexual relations of man and those of the lower animals. In proportion as the human being makes the temporary gratification of the mere sexual appetite is chief object, and overlooks the happiness arising from spiritual communion, which is not only purer but more permanent, and of which a renewal may be anticipated in another world-does he degrade himself to the level of the brutes that perish. Yet how lamentably frequent is this degradation!
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    expenditure of force is enormous-but the form is economized by the advantageous construction of joints etc. If we walk a short distance and the exercise fatigues-it is injurious-the force is generated too slowly-when this force is drawn on too much by mechanical effort there is not enough remaining for internal requirements-and for example we see indigestion, vomiting, constipation, etc. Lecture 12. In all the phenomena of the animal economy there are no accidents-all of the results are based upon fixed laws-so with all the workings of nature & upon this rests the astronomical science. But in living beings the knowledge of all of these fixed laws is as yet by no means perfect-everything is complex and compound. Hence man was called by he ancients a Microcosm "a little world in a world"-Into this hidden complexity science is now penetrating, chemists and physiologists are active & new facts are daily being divulged-Human laws as regards number of marriages, births, deaths etc. are fixed-upon these insurance companies are established-These facts or laws are as fixed as those of astronomy-In the statistics of England & Wales, we see that there are certain laws which regulates the diseases, their fatality etc. For instance it is seen that of 10000 born 4631 die in the first year-5672 in the second & so on and by the fourth, fifth half are dead-the periods of famine it varies, but at the end of twenty years the results are the same-Every disease has its specific laws and the study of these should occupy every physician.
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    Lecture 13.
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    "Self confidence is the first requisite to great understandings. He indeed who forms his opinions of himself in solitude, without knowing the power of other men, is very liable to error: but it was the felicity of Pope to rate himself at his real value" He that is pleased with himself easily images that he shall please others. Carpenter says tears do not bring relief but indicate it has been brought. Physiology Paragraph 426- Also see note to same paragraph page 310- a friend of mine wrote his thesis for a degree in the University of Pennsylvania on Emotional Tears-he graduated in 1941-or 2- Speaking to him about it some weeks ago he told me that in his essay he contended that the flow of tears relieved the distress (?) by depletion-of course the seat of emotions must be the brain-& the idea seems pleasurable that during the operation of the cause an increased flow of blood must go towards the brain the effect of which may be obviated by the separation of its watery part.
Title:
J. F. R. Papers, 1849-1855
Creator:
J. F. R.
Date:
1849-1855
Description:
Papers include a handwritten journal, school exercises, and lecture notes written by an unnamed author with the initials J. F. R. The author was a Physician who apparently attended medical lectures at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia (1849-1850) and University of Louisiana in New Orleans. He briefly served as medical officer on the steamer Falcon in the Caribbean (1853) and as medical officer at the military asylum at East Pascagoula, Mississippi (1854-1855).
Collection:
J. F. R. Papers, 1849-1855
Contributing Institution:
College of Charleston Libraries
Media Type:
Manuscripts
Personal or Corporate Subject:
Jackson, Samuel, 1787-1872, University of Pennsylvania. Dept. of Medicine
Topical Subject:
French language--Study and teaching, Military hospitals--Mississippi--East Pascagoula, Voyages and travels
Geographic Subject:
Havana (Cuba)--Description, New Granada, New Orleans (La.) Physicians
Language:
French
Shelving Locator:
Mss 0034-30
S.C. County:
Charleston County (S.C.)
Material Type:
image/jpeg
Digitization Specifications:
900ppi, 24-bit depth, color, Epson Expression 10000XL, Archival Masters are tiffs.
Copyright Status Statement:
Digital image copyright 2009, The College of Charleston. All rights reserved. For more information contact The College of Charleston Library, Charleston, SC 29424.