Charleston's Historic Houses, 1957: Tenth Annual Tours Sponsored by Historic Charleston Foundation

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    CHARLESTON'S HISTORIC HOUSES Schedule of 1957 Visits to Private Homes March 17 through April 12, 1957 Sponsored by Historic Charleston Foundation Headquarters The Nathaniel Russell House 51 Meeting Street Charleston, South Carolina Teltyhone 3-1168
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    FIRST WEEK MORNING TOUR A Sunday, March 17 — 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., March 18, 19, 20, 21, 22. WILLIAM GIBBES' HOUSE, 64 South Battery, c. 1772. Splendid Georgian mansion, has had among its owners the Rev. John Grimke Drayton, who planted the Magnolia Gardens. Noted for wonderful furniture, magnificent Adam ballroom. Home of Mr. and Mrs. Ashby Farrow. WILLIAM ELLIOTT'S HOUSE, 75 King Street, c. 1739. A fine early example of Charleston architecture, with good primitive decoration in the panelling throughout. Little altered. Home of Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Paul, III. JOSEPH WINTHROP'S HOUSE, 129 Tradd Street, c. 1797. Restrained Adam style of principal rooms practically in original condition, built by Joseph Winthrop, of New England, who married a sister of Charles Fraser, the miniaturist. Residence of Admiral and Mrs. William S. Popham. WILLIAM ROPER HOUSE, 9 East Battery, c. 1848. One of the crowning touches to the classic revival in Charleston, its heroic towering portico not only gives a superb view of the harbor, but is an important part of that view. Recently purchased by Mr. and Mrs. J. Drayton Hastie, it is now shared with his mother, Mrs. C. Norwood Hastie, whose magnificent apartment you will see. NATHANIEL RUSSELL HOUSE, 51 MEETING STREET, c. 1809. Headquarters of Historic Charleston Foundation. One of the outstanding Adam houses in America, with famous free flying staircase and oval drawing rooms. Lovely collection of furniture. Opened to the public for the first time, March 3, 1956. SECOND WEEK MORNING TOUR B Sunday, March 24 — 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., March 25, 26, 27, 28, 29. WILLIAM GIBBES' HOUSE, 64 South Battery, c. 1772. Splendid Georgian mansion, has had among its owners the Rev. John Grimke Drayton, who planted the Magnolia Gardens. Noted for wonderful furniture, magnificent Adam ballroom. Home of Mr. and Mrs. Ashby Farrow. THOMAS LECARE'S HOUSE, 90 Church Street, c. 1760. Built by a well-known Huguenot when Church Street was a lively part of Charleston's business district. Typical piazza, overlooking garden and arched brick wall, makes a charming entrance to the distinguished home of Mr. W. Lucas Simons. MRS. WILLIAM HEYWARD'S HOUSE, 31 Legare Street, c. 1789. Built by a member of one of the greatest rice-planting families of the Low Country. Fine panelling and delicate Adam ornament. Particularly noteworthy drawing room with half-round bay with palladian window. One of Charleston's haunted houses. Home of Mr. and Mrs. Augustine T. Smythe. THE INGLIS ARCH HOUSE, 91 East Bay. Since before 1730 the arched passage-way under this house has been an East Bay landmark. Through the years houses have been built and rebuilt over it. The present one, in the center of colorful Rainbow Row, is the interesting and lovely home of Mrs. Calvin McGowan. NATHANIEL RUSSELL HOUSE, 51 MEETING STREET, c. 1809. Headquarters of Historic Charleston Foundation. One of the outstanding Adam houses in America, with famous free flying staircase and oval drawing rooms. Lovely collection of furniture. Opened to the public for the first time, March 3, 1956. THIRD WEEK MORNING TOUR C Sunday, March 31 — 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., April 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. COLONEL JOHN STUART'S HOUSE, 106 Tradd Street, c. 1772. Peak of Georgian design in this part of the world. Built by Colonel Stuart, Commissioner of Indian affairs, who later lost his home for being a Royalist during the Revolution. The splendid woodwork, doorways and mantels, serve as an admirable background for the furniture and portraits of the owners, Mr. and Mrs. John D. Wing. MRS. JANE WIGHTMAN'S HOUSE, 36 Chalmers Street, c. 1840 Built early in the Greek revival style and renovated as residence by Miss Josephine Pinckney, the Charleston author. Notable for its handsome and historic furnishings from the family plantations of El Dorado and Fairfield. GEORGE EVELEIGH'S HOUSE, 39 Church Street, c. 1738. Built by Eveleigh whose great Indian trade went as far west as the Mississippi. Its street was a creek when it was built. Long the home of Miss Mary O. Marshall and her family. Most of the furniture is of Charleston origin, and for generations in owner's family. WILLIAM HENDRICK'S BUILDINGS, 83 Church Street, c. 1749. A charming bit of imaginative restoration, representing the best that has been done in Charleston. Restored in 1936 by Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds D. Brown. NATHANIEL RUSSELL HOUSE, 51 MEETING STREET, c. 1809. Headquarters of Historic Charleston Foundation. One of the outstanding Adam houses in America, with famous free flying staircase and oval drawing rooms. Lovely collection of furniture. Opened to the public for the first time, March 3, 1956. FOURTH WEEK MORNING TOUR D Sunday, April 7 — 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., April 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. SIMMONS-EDWARDS HOUSE, 14 Legare Street, c. 1800. Built by Francis Simmons. House embellished with elaborate and pure Adam decoration, beautifully furnished. The extensive gardens are as handsome as the fine iron grill and fence added by George Edwards in 1816. The home of Mr. and Mrs. Bushrod B. Howard. WILLIAM HENDRICK'S BUILDINGS, 83 Church Street, c. 1749. A charming bit of imaginative restoration, representing the best that has been done in Charleston. Restored in 1936 by Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds D. Brown. COLONEL OTHNIEL BEALE'S HOUSE, 101 East Bay, c. 1740. Othniel Beale, immigrant from New England, Colonel of provincial troops in charge of strengthening the town's fortifications, built on this property just after the great fire of 1740. Handsome rooms, panelled with Low Country cypress, are now resplendent with many fine examples of the craftsmen working here in the 18th Century. Home of Justice and Mrs. Lionel K. Legge. ELIHU HALL BAY HOUSE, 76 Meeting Street, c. 1785. A house of dignified simplicity. Now the rectory of St. Michael's Church, it is furnished with much fine furniture and many memorabilia of Commodore M. C. Perry's first expedition to Japan. Home of the Reverend and Mrs. DeWolf Perry. NATHANIEL RUSSELL HOUSE, 51 MEETING STREET, c. 1809. Headquarters of Historic Charleston Foundation. One of the outstanding Adam houses in America, with famous free flying staircase and oval drawing rooms. Lovely collection of furniture. Opened to the public for the first time, March 3, 1956.
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    TENTH ANNUAL OPEN HOUSE SERIES Schedule for 1957—March 17 through April 12. Visitors may see Charleston's private homes at their pleasure, and at any time during the hours the homes are opened. It is not necessary to go with a group. There will be a series of four visits with five beautiful homes on each. Daily, Monday through Friday, the tours are held in the morning from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m.; on Sundays, in the afternoons from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. On Saturdays, other groups in the city conduct tours, see courtesy information. TARIFF Tours A, B, C, D: Fee for each tour—$4.00. Russell House Only: Fee $1.00. Tickets are on sale at the Russell House, 51 Meeting Street, and at local hotels, but not at the private homes. Visitors are conducted through the houses by hostesses. Homes may be visited in any order desired, but visitors have to provide their own transportation where needed. A ticket is good for the entire week a tour is scheduled and entitles the visitor to one admission to each house at any time during the hours the house is open. HOTELS, INNS, AND MOTOR COURTS St. John Hotel—Single, $5; Double. $8 to $10. 2-7741. Brewton Inn—Single, $5; Double, $7 up. 2-3487. Fort Sumter Hotel—Single, $5 up; Double, $8 up. Francis Marion Hotel—Single, $4.50 up; Double, $7.00 up. Brookgreen Meadows Court—Double, $8.00. Castle Pinckney Inn— Lord Ashley Motor Court—Double, $8.50 up. Old Town Motor Court—Double, $8.50 up. Mount Vernon Court—Double, $7 up. Squirrel Inn—Summerville, S. C. Carolina Inn—Summerville, S. C. COURTESY INFORMATION CHARLESTON: Saturday, March 16, 2:30 P.M.—Tour of Town Houses, Women of St. Michael's. Friday, March 22, and Friday, April 5, 8:30 P.M.—Concert by Society for the Preservation of Negro Spirituals, Footlight Players Workshop. Wed., April 10, Sat., April 13—Candlelight Concert, Heyward- Washington House, sponsored by the Preservation Society. Saturday, March 23, 1 P.M.—Plantation Tour, St. Philip's Women's Auxiliary. Saturday, March 30—Plantation Tour, Women of St. Michael's Saturday, April 6, 2:30 P.M.—Tour of Town Houses, St. Philip's Women's Auxiliary. Saturday, April 20, 3 P.M. to 6 P.M.—7 P.M. to 10 P.M. Tour of Town Houses, Charleston Garden Club. VIRGINIA, MARYLAND Historic Garden Week in Virginia, April 20 through April 27, Headquarters, Room 3, Jefferson Hotel, Richmond 19, Virginia. Maryland House and Garden Pilgrimage, Wednesday, May 1 through Sunday, May 12—Information Room 217, Sheraton-Belvedere Hotel, Baltimore, Maryland.
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    CHARLESTON'S HISTORIC 1957 Tenth Annual Tours Sponsored by Historic Charleston Foundation Headquarters The Nathaniel Russell House 51 Meeting Street Charleston, S. C.
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    NATHANIEL RUSSELL HOUSE c. 1809 51 Meeting Street Headquarters Historic Charleston Foundation
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    The Nathaniel Russell House In mid-February, 1955, Charleston had to face a cultural challenge. The Nathaniel Russell property was threatened with subdivision. One of the most distinguished historic homes in the United States, the house stood in its own ample grounds, at the very heart of Charleston s history. This Foundation at once offered to take charge of the property, could it be saved, and then sought the purchase price of $65,000. For eight years, through the generosity of the owners of many of Charlestons finest private homes, illustrated elsewhere in this booklet, we had conducted Tours each spring. Almost all the money raised through this work had been carefully invested, so that though the Foundation was in no position to undertake the purchase and maintenance of so large a property itself, it was nevertheless substantial enough to warrant the trust of others. The City, through Mayor Morrison, joined in the effort by getting an option on the property. Just ten days before this expired, $32,500 was guaranteed anonymously, if the rest could be raised. The city, the Press, and the public of Charleston, with many friends in other parts of the country, aided the Foundation in an enthusiastic campaign. In the alloted time, by nearly a thousand contributions of sums from a dollar upward, the purchase price was oversubscribed! •* 1 «•
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    Since that time, we have been allowed to make public the source of our first anonymous donation. So now with great pleasure we take this opportunity to thank Mr. H. Smith Richardson and the Richardson Foundation for the generous gift which has resulted in The Nathaniel Russell House being the Museum Headquarters of Historic Charleston Foundation. For the many repairs and restoration that were found vitally necessary, another large sum was contributed anonymously. The Foundation added money of its own for the work which was soon begun, and was completed in time for the house to be put on exhibition in March, 1956. Generous and appropriate gifts, loans, and contributions have enabled us partly to furnish the house in the style of Nathaniel Russell's times. Two of his portraits are notable loans. One, by Savage, shows him in 1789. The other, by Jarvis, gives his likeness as an old man, while he lived here. His house is a distinguished monument to Charleston's fortunate years between 1800 and the War of 1812. By then Russell had spent much of his life in this city. Born in 1738, the son of a Chief Justice of Rhode Island, he became a merchant here by 1769, and was prominent in business before the Revolution. After the war he was the acknowledged head of a considerable coterie of expatriate New Eng- landers, and popularly known as "the King of the Yankees." In 1819 they would make him the first president of their New England Society. Before 1800 the great merchants of Charleston lived along East Bay, over their places of business and across the street from the wharfs where their goods came and went. With the new century, such men made homes elsewhere. At the same time the architectural style popularized by the Scottish Adams through the English aristocracy took over this American town. Conservatively, Russell lived on the bay until 1807, though two daughters, almost old enough to marry, doubtlessly urged him off. When he began building on the big lot by Meeting Street that he had bought in 1784, he frankly set out to excel. Charleston's architects and craftsmen had by then had half a dozen years experience with the spiralling stairs, the bays, and the elegant precision of detail that made the "Age of Adam" here. ■* 2 «•
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    Such men were employed "regardless of cost, not by contract, but by day's labor," to give the Russells (what was still considered fifty years afterwards), "the finest establishment in Charleston." Finished at a cost of over $80,000, the family resided there by the time the Directory for 1809 was being prepared. And in that year the elder Miss Russell married young Arthur Middleton, of Stono, nephew and namesake of the Signer, and of the top-flight of planter families. The house is an exercise in ellipses. The subtle curves appear in the plans of rooms, of the astonishing flying stair, and in the balconies about the middle story. Ellipses repeat also in the principal windows and doorways, and one frames the monogram of Nathaniel Russell in the balcony railing above the entrance. The interiors speak beautifully for themselves. The exteriors show a culmination of a style begun in 1800 at Vander Horst Row, and the Blacklock House at 18 Montague Street. Two sorts of brick, marble, wood, and wrought-iron are combined with structural logic in what is also a composition of contrasting textures, colors, and forms. A high middle story is pulled into proportion by the arches flung over the windows, and these strengthen and lighten the walls. Balconies permit the tall windows to open from the floor. So cumbersome piazzas were avoided, and the copious ventilation Charlestonians demand was obtained. Even the fashion of laying the good Carolina •£ 3 «-
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    gray brick in the walls is a study in real elegance of workmanship. After the War of 1812 the house became such a disproportionate part of Russell's property that he willed it should be carried at $38,000 when his two daughters shared the estate. In 1857, the younger sister, Mrs. Dehon, sold the house for about this amount to Robert F. W. Allston. The lady was the widow of South Carolina's second Episcopal bishop-the gentleman, then governor of the state, and a great planter. During the Confederacy, Robert E. Lee came to this house to flutter with bis very great charm the hearts of the lovely Allston women, and set them to such flirtatious tasks as hemming his handkerchiefs. After the war, those same women made their livings, for a while, teaching a girls' school in these same high parlors. The house long remained a school, for it was bought in 1870 for the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy who made it their convent and taught two generations of Charleston girls in it. When the family of the late Lane Mullally bought it in 1908, it again became a private residence. In 1913 it came to be the home of a woman who had long loved it. Mrs. Francis J. Pelzer (II) was Virginian by descent, Charlestonian by adoption and grace, and the daughter-in-law of one of the first of the southern builders of great cotton mills. For forty years she made this mansion a fond mistress, adding to it such distinguished details as the fine fencing along Meeting Street, which she had designed from old Charleston examples. Three years after Mrs. Pelzer's death, the house came to the Foundation. COMMITTEES OF RUSSELL HOUSE Governing Board Mr. Henry P. Staats, Chairman Mr. S. Lewis Johnson Mr. Ben Scott Whaley Mr. L. Louis Green, III Mrs. S. Henry Edmunds Mr. Robert M. Hollings Mrs. John P. Frost Mr. Samuel G. Stoney Mrs. Coming Ball Gibbs Building Committee Mr. H. P. Staats Mr. C. Bissell Jenkins, Jr. Mr. Albert Simons Mrs. Lionel K. Legge Mr. E. Gaillard Dotterer Furnishings and Decoration Committee Mrs. John P. Frost, Chairman Mrs. Bushrod B. Howard Mrs. John P. Wilson Mrs. Thomas R. Waring, Jr. Mrs. John D. Wing Mrs. R. N. S. Whitelaw Miss Josephine Pinckney Mrs. Lionel K. Legge Mrs. Henry P. Staats Mrs. Augustine T. Smythe Garden and Grounds Committee Mrs. Coming Ball Gibbs, Chairman Mr. C Norwood Hastie, Jr. Mrs. Louis deB. McCrady Mrs. Joseph I. Waring Mr. Loutrel W. Briggs Mrs. Ellison A. Williams
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    The Tours, or visits to private homes, are held each year during the last two weeks in March and the first two weeks in April. They are planned to coincide with the season of the year when the gardens are in bloom, and when the city itself is at its loveliest, colorful with wisteria, azaleas and roses. The generous owners of the homes shown on these Tours are opening them to the public because of their interest in the work of Historic Charleston Foundation in its effort to preserve Charleston's historic heritage of buildings. Without their very real contribution, these Tours would not be possible. It is only at this time of year that the private homes of the city are open to the public. During the 1957 season, fifteen private homes will be open in a series of four daytime tours. There are five houses included on each tour; the hours are from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., Monday through Friday; and on Sunday afternoons from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. The group of homes to be shown changes each week. There are no Foundation tours on Saturday as other groups in the city open houses at that time. Visitors are conducted through the houses by hostesses. Homes may be visited in any order desired, but visitors will have to provide their own transportation where needed. Full information and tour tickets may be secured from the Tours Headquarters, at the Nathaniel Russell House, 51 Meeting Street. Telephone 3-1168. Visitors are asked not to take interior photographs, and to refrain from smoking in the houses. TOURS COMMITTEE: Mr. Berkley Grimbalx, Chairman Mr. E. Milby Burton Mrs. Lionel K. Legge Mr. C. Lester Cannon Mr. Benjamin R. Kittredge, Jr. Mil C. Norwood Hastie Mrs. Ashby Farrow Mrs. John P. Frost Mr. C. Bissell Jenkins, Jr. Mr. Samuel G. Stoney Mr. Ben Scott Whaley, ex officio Mrs. S. Henry Edmunds, Tours Director » 5 «-
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    In 1940, farsighted members of the Board of Directors of the Carolina Art Association determined to take action for the preservation of the many fine architectural and historic buildings which were Charleston's priceless heritage. The Civic Services Committee was formed and, with a grant from the Carnegie Corporation, a study was begun to determine the number of buildings within the city of architectural or historic value, and to classify them as to their importance. This tremendous undertaking was completed in 1944 with the publication of "This is Charleston," a classified directory of 1168 buildings worthy of recognition. In the march of time subsequent to the completion of this study, Charleston lost many of these valuable edifices through disfigurement or destruction, attributable to ignorance in the guise of progress, and it was deemed advisable to make some further move to implement the cause of preservation. Again the Carolina Art Association, following a suggestion made by Mr. Kenneth Chorley, President of Colonial Williamsburg, recommended that a corporation be formed for the dual purpose of educating the public as to the worth of these many fine old buildings, and to assist in their preservation whenever their destruction seemed imminent. From this group, and through private subscription, Historic Charleston Foundation was incorporated in 1947. This Foundation is a non-profit, educational institution seeking to aid and preserve Charleston's heritage, not only for those who live here, but for all who come to enjoy its beauty. The Board of Trustees of Historic Charleston Foundation, taking cognizance of the increasing difficulty of maintaining private institutions through public subscription, wisely sought some means whereby the Foundation might earn its own support. With this thought in mind, the annual Tours of Historic Houses was determined upon. And what could be more fitting than that those homes which have been better cared for through their ownership, should aid the institution dedicated to the preservation of those equally worthy but less fortunate. The ultimate aim of Historic Charleston Foundation is to preserve and use the architectural and historic treasures of the Charleston area. ■^ 6 «-
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    In 1952 this foundation undertook its first restoration. We collaborated with Rebecca Motte Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, the owners of our colonial Exchange that looks down Broad Street from East Bay. Together we replaced the pediment of this historic building. Smashed in the disastrous earthquake of 1886, it had remained ever since a cobbled-up atrocity. This brings a very prominent building into more authentic shape, and restores to Charleston another touch of the Palladian elegance that made her, in the middle of the eighteenth century, the finest colonial capital in British America. In 1953 the Foundation contributed funds to pay off the final indebtedness on the Heyward-Washington house, now owned and operated by the Charleston Museum. In 1955 it purchased the Nathaniel Russell House, the first project of its own, and an ambitious one. Through the generosity of many people sufficient funds have been raised to renovate and repair it, and its renovation is now complete. The House is now opened for public view. It will represent through the years a graphic example of the aims of our organization and stand as a monument to Charleston's culture both of the past and the present. Ben Scott Whaley President, Historic Charleston Foundation OFFICERS President Ben Scott Whaley Vice-President Berkley Grimball Secretary Mrs. S. Henry Edmunds Treasurer C. Lester Cannon TRUSTEES Miss Alice R. Huger Smith—Honorary Mr. Loutrel W. Briggs Mrs. Percy Gamble Kammerer Mr. C. Lester Cannon Mrs. John P. Frost Mrs. Joseph R. Young Mrs. Lionel K. Legge Mr. E. Gaillard Dotterer Mrs. Coming Ball Gibbs Miss Josephine Pinckney Mr. William Mason Smith Mr. Henry P. Staats Mr. Ben Scott Whaley Mr. C. Bissell Jenkins, Jr. Mr. E. Milby Burton Mr. Benjamin R. Kittredge, Jr. Mb. Albert Simons Mr. Samuel G. Stoney Mr. Robert N. S. Whit'elaw Mr. Berkley Grimball Mrs. Ashby Farrow Mrs. S. Henry Edmunds
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    The Adam Tradition The unique achievement of Robert Adam was the domestication of the architecture of antiquity for contemporary use. Nature and circumstance conspired to endow him with the advantages an architect would most desire—creative imagination, energy of mind and body, financial independence, wide travel, influential friends, affluent clients, executive ability and comprehension of the spirit of his times. In 1754 at the age of twenty-six Robert left Scotland, making a leisurely progress through France and Italy, with a side trip to the eastern shore of the Adriatic to survey the remains of Diocletian's Palace at Spalato, which added prestige in an archaeologically minded age. By 1758 he was established in London. The tastes of the day were preoccupied with antiquity and Robert Adam from his travels was familiar with the admired examples, but he realized that the temples, tombs and baths of Imperial Rome would not serve without modification as prototypes for the great houses of his day. To preserve the glamour of the antique, but to give it a "new look" was his contribution. Within the bounds of classic decorum British tastes craved invention, variety, cheerfulness and elegance. Adam met this demand with well lighted rooms arranged in suites varying in shape and proportions, circular, oval, polygonal, rectangular or with segmental ends. Classic proportions were attenuated to give a sense of domestic scale and walls and ceilings were covered with ornament in low relief inclosing medallions of decorative painting, with gilding and a variety of light, clear colors to compensate with high pitched visual excitement for the depressing atmosphere outdoors. Rich and colorful materials were employed, columns of alabaster or verde antique, mantels of white marble, pilasters with ormolu arabesques overlaid on ivory, mahogany doors, damask covered walls, and carpets patterned to repeat the designs of the ceilings. Adam had at his command scores of artists, many imported from Italy to carry out his concepts, and his standards of execution were alwavs high. His field did not stop at the building and its decoration, but included furniture, candelabra, silverware, stoves and carpets, etc. Never had an architect established such a dictatorship. As all dictatorships, its ready acceptance germinated the seeds of weakness. Its concentration on the polite, sophisticated and correct excluded the personal and indigenous. One feels that the decorative painters were conscious always of a zealous architect breathing down the backs of their necks and that these bored and exasperated artists -» 8 «•
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    seldom produced their best. Much of the relief ornament was multiplied from moulds without variations. In spite of the unquestionable eclat of the whole, the endless recurrence of the same motiffs—urns, acanthus leaves, griffins and Greek maidens palls and like the monotony of a sonorous ritual leaves but a passing impact on our consciousness. However, men less aggressive, but with more taste, as James Wyatt took hold of these ideas and with homeopathic insight made ornament more effective by using less of it. By another generation what began as the fashion of the elite became the mode of the general. Less affluent and with British aversion to overstatement the middle classes simplified the Adam style retaining its grace and refinement. Robert Adam died in 1792 and in 34 years he had created many important buildings in England and Scotland. Always there had been a time lag between the flowering of ideas in England and their desemination in America. This delay had been prolonged by the Revolution and its attendant economic blight. Thus the Adamesque vernacular reached our shores some years after the peace. As it spread along the Atlantic seaboard it underwent adaptation. For Portland stone, brick and wood were substituted inducing spindlier proportions and a more amiable homespun quality without old world hauteur. Decorative painters were not to be had, but once models were acquired of garlands, swags and maidens, these cliches were repeated for the enrichment of hundreds of mantelpieces and doorways. This borrowed vocabulary harmonized well enough with the native feature of wide fireplaces and spacious rooms well lit by tall windows and crisply executed craftsmanship. Such interiors were enhanced by the grace of Sheraton furniture and the august portraits of the defenders and guardians of the recently independent and federated states. And so this early nineteenth century architecture is associated in our minds with the beginnings of a new era for our nation and its destinies and Jove's eagle with his stars seems not the emblem of a paganism long dead, but of the nascent republic. Albert Simons, F.A.I.A. ■» 9 *
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    Charleston began in April of 1670, the pleasantest time of her year, when the first colony, sent to settle what would become South Carolina, was led to her most excellent harbor and fine site by a friendly Indian Chief, the Cassique of the Kiawahs. The colonists were already a grand mixture of English, Irish, West Indians and Bermudans, but there were several men of experience among them. As soon as possible these had the tip of the wide peninsula that was called Oyster Point, reserved for a future town, but, being properly aware that the Spaniards of Florida, their nearest colonial neighbors, considered them dangerous trespassers, they started the first settlement on a very defensible finger of land to the west of the Ashley and several miles further from the bar than Oyster Point. Wars in Europe and politics in England hindered the growth of the colony for ten years, but the first Charlestonians were able to scare away an expedition from St. Augustine in the first summer, and by 1672 felt secure enough to order that the site on Oyster Point be enlarged and marked out for a town. This was done from a "Grand Modell" which provided most of the principal streets between the Battery and the line of Beaufain Street, then continued as a boundary over to the Cooper. You can mark where it crossed the principal "path" up the peninsula by the "bend" in King Street. The "Grand Modell" provided two "great" streets, now called Broad and Meeting, to quarter roughly the largest area of solid ground within the creek-riddled site. These "great" streets intersected in a market place, lost long since under public buildings. Broad Street, then called Cooper, came to the river of the same name at about the center of the long bluff that ran along East Bay, from the head of East Battery to the markets. This was used as wharfage until better could be built. After 1679, when the town was officially brought across the Ashley, the new Charles Town began growing inland from the bluff along streets then considered very wide and regular. Time and tempests, fashions and fires, bombardments and earthquakes have, in the centuries since, combined to destroy every known building from the Charles Town of the seventeenth century. Old prints, and such ancient plantation houses as that at Medway, give us some notion of what they were, but the lay of the city from the "Grand Modell" now remains its most authentic souvenir of that time. If the town's first ten years were hampered by the troubles abroad, the next twenty were complicated by rows at home. Once the wars were over, substantial West Indians came here bringing the form of plantations from the islands where they were being perfected. A tolerant constitution induced groups of Protestant minorities, suffering in the Counter Reformation, to colonize here. A considerable number of French Huguenots and English Puritans began to arrive in 1680. Quakers from England, Scotch Covenanters, Puritans from Long Island, and Baptists, driven from Maine by the theocrats of Massachusetts, helped to make up a fine mixture that lost no heat from certain adventurous souls, who certainly had been privateers, and were freely accused of having been pirates. These made the town a smelting pot that boiled of its own frictional heat until the coming of the new century. •» 10 «-
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    At the same time the community found things to grow on. Bold traders carried a barter business with the Indians beyond die Mississippi. Rice was developed as a plantation staple. South Carolina began to feed the sugar inslands, whence so many settlers came to her; to send them oak staves for their puncheons, and pine for their buildings. All three businesses lasted for many years; rice, for over two centuries. But loneliness, danger and the virtues of the harbor kept the isolated colony closely integrated with Charles Town, until the town was too strong to brook the rise of nearby rivals. With Virginia twice as far away as St. Augustine, and the vicious capes about Hatteras adding to the longer distance, the town was forced to be self-sufficient and to think like a city when it was still the size of a village. The opening of the eighteenth century brought Queen Anne's War to add to this characteristic. The thick built part of the town was fortified with walls and bastions run in from the ends of the bluff and along the line of Meeting Street. These further compressed building as they made the town a true "city of refuge." Trouble followed trouble to keep it so. During the war, South Carolinians drove off a combined Spanish and French fleet and ravaged Florida up to the very walls of the stout little "castle" at St. Augustine. They then led Indian auxiliaries to drive the Tuscaroras out of North Carolina, and threatened the rival French traders at Pensacola and Mobile. Later they had to turn and fight for existence against a general rising of Indians led by the Yemassees. Then, when they had saved the colony, they had to send out naval expeditions to clear their coast and the North Carolina inlets of a heavy infestation of pirates. To cap everything, the colony in 1719 revolted from the inefficient rule of its Proprietors and was made a Royal Province. As such it throve largely until the Revolution. In those fifty-odd years Charles Town learned to live rather splendidly for a little capital and town-of-trade of a smallish colony. Hundreds of thousands of deer skins, not so valuable as peltries, but bulking into money, were brought in by boat and packtrain from all over our Southeast. Rice led planters up and down the Low Country of South Carolina and then across the Savannah into land this colony claimed between Savannah and Florida. King George's War came like Balaam to curse, by breaking up temporarily our rice market in Southern Europe, and, like the prophet, remained to bless, by causing the introduction of indigo, first as a substitute for rice then as an additional staple that made many a fortune in the Low Country, before it was lost in the Revolution. Money brought education abroad and culture at home. A gracious way of living in a semi-tropical climate began to call for architectural plans and details of our own. Most notable of these plans is that of the "single" house, so well illustrated by that of Thomas Legare and its two neighbors to the north, and so commonly and generally distributed. The town at this time completed or built many fine public buildings. At the beginning of the century one of the most peace-giving measures for the colony had been the establishment of the Church of England. This put religion into government and took it out of politics very effectively. It also created a number of fine and interesting church buildings in the parishes and the town. The second church of St. Philip's congregation, begun shortly, was conceded for many years to be the finest ecclesiastical structure in England's American colonies. After King George's War, St. Michael's was built where the town had its first place of worship in a corner of the market place. About the same time two other equally fine "Palladian" buildings were given the •* 11 *
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    corners across Meeting Street. The Guard House, standing where the Post Office is now, was first butchered, then completely destroyed. The State House, burned out in 1788, was mangled somewhat in being made into a Court for the county, and has suffered severely since. Stopping the Bay end of Broad St., the town built a fine Exchange. Taking these all together, and with fine houses to fill in, Charleston must have been an impressive little city. The Revolution stopped almost all architecture and a great deal else until about 1790. Then the cotton gin and power mills for cleaning rice broke the bottle necks in a new and an old industry. By 1800 these had brought prosperity back to a town which had dignified its position by changing its name to Charleston. Its new Republicans found the style of Robert Adam an untried and charming way of decorating, and planning their homes. More often this delicate and refined fashion was applied to the "single" house, as you will see it in the Simmons-Edwards House, but, as Charleston was then spreading out into a number of suburbs, you will find an extraordinary lot of Adam houses scattered all over the city. Hunting them in our by-ways adds to the sport of a visit to, or a life in, Charleston. The War of 1812 set a sharp limit to this period and kept another from developing before 1820. Then Charleston discovered "Regency." Just as they had done with Adam's decoration, they now used the similar but more robust succeeding style, most often to modify their "single" houses. While Charleston began politically to measure the worth of the Federal Union in the 'thirties and 'forties, and to despair of remaining in it during the 'fifties, the architectural "revivals" came to her. Greek, Gothic, and Classic she treated alike, largely as she had handled the Adam and Regency styles before them. Here and there you find developed "Greek" or "Classic" houses, but the styles, when not modified to our plans, were largely left to public buildings. Gothic of the eighteenth-century, "Strawberry Hill" sort, had been used here already, in a playful but very limited way, on servants' houses and stablings. Be it said to the city's great credit that she never, in the days of its revival, debased it to use on a dwelling house. The Greek orders were used with similar discretion. You will see heroic Doric employed by a number of churches, but no Charleston house is huddled behind a miniature of a temple portico. Ionic and Corinthian, Greek and Roman, yes—but desecration of the great style, never! The war that Charleston began came nearer destroying her economically than physically. Despite the bombardments of three years, and all the other dilapidations of the poverty and chaos that followed, the adventure was a bit like the eruption that overwhelmed Pompeii and at the same time partly preserved for us that once wicked, charming, little city. Charleston's architectural life was well nigh in a state of suspended animation during the ghastly "late" Victorianisms and the slow recovery of good taste after them. You can see some exceedingly dreadful examples of what a little money did to decent Charleston houses in the 'seventies and 'eighties, but only enough of them to point the moral. Poverty, virtuous as when St. Francis embraced her, kept the city relatively pure. So when a new era opened after World War I, there was much to love, to admire, and to save. With a mixture of faith and works, part of Charleston is trying to keep the best of her for the nation and posterity. SAMUEL GAILLARD STONEY •* 12 *
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    ON THE TOUR Descriptive Histories By SAMUEL GAILLARD STONEY * 13 ■*
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    Carl Julien No. 1 GEORGE EVELEIGH'S HOUSE 39 Church Street c. 1738 Residence of Miss Mary O. Marshall Nestled in the "bend" in Church Street, behind a minute park-like spot, is the oldest home on these tours and one of the oldest types in the city. It has survived time, change, fire, wars and an earthquake that have taken practically all of Charleston's earlier buildings. George Eveleigh, to whom it is credited, was then a wealthy Charlestonian whose agents bartered British goods to the Indians of the Southeast for the thousands of deer skins that were then shipped away to Europe. It has been little changed by the long years of its life. The unsymetrical floor plan is almost unaltered. The rooms are splendidly paneled with wide cypress boards brought from Low Country swamps and fashioned by the tasteful handicraft of skilled carpenters. Their robust cornices, dignified panels and other simple early Georgian decorations are nearly as they left them. ■fr 14 «•
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    For many year this house has been the home of Miss Mary O. Marshall. Much of her furniture was made in Charleston, and most of it has served many generations of her kindred. Their good taste makes the collection a history of local amenities. As in most old Charleston houses, the drawing room is on the second floor. Here it gains spaciousness by taking up the entire front of a comparatively small house. Tall panels give grace to its proportions. The fireplace has an Adam mantel, saved from the town house of Nathaniel Heyward, once a celebrated and successful rice planter. Interest is centered here by arched doorways, one leading to a passage, the other framing a shell closet made for the display of fine china, now filled with Lowestoft, Famine Rose and Chelsea porcelain of the Marshall family's collecting. 00mmffiji Carl Tulien •* 15 «•
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    Carl Julien No. 2—WILLIAM ELLIOTT'S HOUSE 75 King Street c. 1739 William Elliott, whose distinguished family began here as a brotherhood of builders, appears to have built this house for himself sometime before 1738, since it then appears on the Roberts and Toms map entitled "The Iconography of Charles- Town at High Water." Simple, stalwart designing and decoration, robust walls, and such details as the exterior chimneys to the west, all point to an early date of building. There were never any great fires to destroy this very interesting neighborhood that was beginning to grow up about the same time that the thoroughfare through it ceased to be called "the little street that runneth from Ashley River to the Broad path to the country," and became King Street in honor of George I, who had taken the province over from the feckless rule of the Proprietors. Some time after 1753, when the invention of decorating tiles by transfer rather than painting was causing riots in Liverpool, the Elliotts smartened the large dining room fireplace with the new sort of tile made by Sadler and Green, who had invented the process. And great was the pleasure of Mr. and Mrs. Paul, when in the process of their restoration they discovered many of these tiles, still decorating the original fire place. •* 16 ■ «•
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    Elliott particularly mentions the house in the will he made in 1765. Then it was occupied by "Mrs. Mary Stokes, school mistress." It went from Elliott's wife to his daughters, Mrs. Lewis Morris and Mrs. Daniel Huger. This is probably the oldest building in a very picturesque neighborhood. Several close to it are as large, but none so primitive. The block it stands in has been completely changed in the last twenty years. As small brick and wooden houses have come more and more into demand, the row of pleasant little buildings above this have been taken over from slumdom and worse. This house of William Elliott's is nearly the last to be rehabilitated in this very attractive section of an old suburb of the city. It owes its salvation to its present owners, Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Paul, III. Residence of Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Paul, III mm^m" Samuel Chamberlain •* 17 «■
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    Samuel Chamberlain No. 3—COLONEL OTHNIEL BEALE'S HOUSE 101 East Bay Street c. 1740 The early history of this house is in keeping with its present charm. This is how it came to be built. When the fire of 1740 destroyed the neighboring part of town, Colonel Othniel Beale, "a gentleman of great ingeniousity and judgment" was busy putting Charleston's fortifications "in condition to beat off any Enemy." Very shortly after, he bought two lots here and built his house and the one next south to it under one roof. They were obviously designed for merchants on the then busy Bay, who would work below and live above stairs. Beale, who had not been born in New England for nothing, to encourage a better sort of tenant, made the rooms upstairs fine with woodwork that stood up to any of its time in the city for design and execution. •» 18 &
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    Since this is one of the oldest of Charleston's houses, standing in one of the town's oldest neighborhoods, on land granted by the Lords Proprietors of Carolina, it is very fitting that the Legges should have placed large copies of the great seal of the founders of the colony to guard the entrance door to their home. This, and the charm of the situation, induced die Legges to pioneer in rehabilitating the house when the neighborhood all about it had degenerated into the depths of degradation. Greatly daring, they reorganized their house in 1931 and went to live in it. Others followed their example until, house by house, one of Charleston's most delightful and colorful neighborhoods was saved. The Legges' restoration set a fine example. Two decayed stores gave room for garages; a brick-heaped yard became a garden; paint by the dozen coats was removed from the capital woodwork. Their family furniture, with old mahogany pieces that were made in Charleston or on the plantations of the Low Country grace the restored rooms in the happiest manner. Residence of Mr. and Mrs. Lionel K. Legge '. ; ■ San •* 19 *■
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    No. 4—WILLIAM HENDRICKS BUILDINGS 83 Church Street c. 1749 This unexpectedly unusual little house has been selected especially as an example of what has been done in remodelings in Charleston. Before being turned into a residence by its present owners, its front rooms were part of an old kitchen building shared by two establishments on the street. These were all started together as an investment by a Christ Church planter named William Hendricks. Dying in 1749, he instructs his executors in his will to complete the two brick "tenements" he is building on Church Street and, "also the Back Buildings" thereto. So we can count their age very accurately. In the next couple of centuries the rooms on either side of the narrow, arched passage that frames a view of the garden, were used as shops by a variety of tradesmen and artisans. It is appropriate that you can now buy in them fine gifts, and they still serve their original purpose. They do this all the more charmingly because in all modern alterations great care has been taken to preserve the quaint appearance of the group from the street. ■* 20 «■
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    Mrs. Brown has furnished the home she improved from the two eighteenth century kitchens with an interesting collection of heirlooms. As she was born a Perry from Rhode Island, many of her things come from notable, sea-faring New England ancestors. So, among old Chinese porcelains and Korean chests, you may find a shield- back Hepplewhite chair used by the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia in 1787; and over the cavernous arch of the erstwhile kitchen fireplace, now set out with a proper complement of iron cranes, brass kettles and copper stew pans, you will see, well-carved and gilded, a spreading Federal Eagle that came from Nantucket and, doubtless, before that ornamented the stern of some tall old ship. Not the least charming part of what has happened to William Hendricks' "investment" is the delightful little paved garden seen through the arch from Church Street. Residence of Mrs. Reynolds D. Brown ■» 21 «■
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    Van Anda No. 5—THOMAS LEGARE'S HOUSE 90 Church c. 1760 Standing together on Church Street is a group of three very fine old Charleston "single" houses that beautifully illustrate both the conservatism and the charm of the city's taste in building. The most northerly of these seems to date from the 1750's. The middle house is known to have been built about 1809. The other, judging by its most excellent woodwork, belongs to Pre-Revolutionary times and has been dated from the 1760's. Though spanning a half century of building in Charleston, at first glance these three would seem contemporaries. Since the land where this last house stands was owned by Thomas Legare before 1752, it can easily be attributed to that son of one of the outstanding Huguenot emigrants to this colony. It is very fitting that it should have been charmingly and carefully restored by two Charlestonians of Huguenot name and lineage, William Lucas Simons and his wife, Adele Petigru (Conner) Simons. Between the ownerships of old Thomas Legare and that of Mr. Simons, this house stands for a great deal that has been most gracious and praiseworthy in Charleston's history. Only two notable changes have been made between these far-removed owners. A look at the middle window at the front of the ground floor indicates an overwide flat arch still marking where Legare had the entrance to an office. And the detail of the handsome Regency piazza shows you that they were added by George MacAuley, who -* 22 &
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    in 1816 bought and pulled down the next door house to make a yard for his. The brick wall he made that bounds it in has the very characteristic arched construction of the best Charleston building. The house has much fine old furniture and some interesting portraits. Hanging in the drawing room are two that are peculiarly worth noticing. Above the hanger (the small curved sword) he wore with his fatigue uniforms, is a painting of Keating Simons, rice planter on Cooper River and once Brigade-Major to General Francis Marion, the famous South Carolina partisan. Near it is Sully's portrait of Adele Petigru Allston, sister to that most notable of South Carolina Unionists, James Louis Petigru, and wife of R. F. W. Allston, a great rice planter, and a liberal governor of ante-bellum times. She was for thirteen years the mistress of the Nathaniel Russell house, bought by her husband when he was Governor of South Carolina. Residence of Mr. W. Lucas Simons Samuel Chamberlain •* 23 «•
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    No. 6—WILLIAM GIBBES' HOUSE 64 South Battery c. 1772 Residence of Mr. and Mrs. Ashby Farrow This splendid mansion, built at the height of Charleston's Georgian period, was extensively redecorated again in the midst; of her craze for the Adam style. The result is both extraordinarih distinguished and pleasing. The present owner's very fine furniture combines to make it one of the handsomest houses in the City. The house was started soon after 1772 by William Gibbes. The Ashley River then came up to the opposite side of the street and Gibbes had also a very long wharf running out to its channel, where he conducted his business. The wharf had a most agreeable function. In hot weather a place of "genteel entertainment" used to be fitted up at its far end where Charlestonians might partake of both the cooling air and some light refreshments. After its owners died, the house became the home of Mrs. Sarah Moore Smith and long continued in her family. About 1800 the Smiths added the monumental marble stairways at the front, put a high cove to the parlor ceiling, and enriched much of the Georgian woodwork with Adam ornaments. •£ 24 «•
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    The Reverend John Grimke Drayton, who later owned the house, took his mother's surname to inherit Magnolia Plantation on the Ashley, and, when a "clergyman's throat" had driven him from the active ministry of the Episcopal Church, made there the world-famous garden. In the nineteen-twenties, Mrs. Washington A. Roebling, widow of the builder of the Brooklyn Bridge, bought the house from the Sloan family, whose home it had long been. Mrs. Roebling made extensive restoration and alterations. For her collection of oriental art and ceramics the southeast room on the principal floor was remodeled in the mode of Chinese Chippendale. The rooms at the rear were lengthened and the brick stairway added to connect the house with the fine formal garden. It is now the home of Mrs. Roebling's grandson, Mr. Ashby Farrow, and Mrs. Farrow. 25
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    No. 7—COLONEL JOHN STUART'S HOUSE 106 Tradd Street c. 1772 In the lull between the triumphant war with France and our own Revolution, the western suburbs of Charles Town included a little Vauxhall called the Orange Garden. There in the summers you hear*d "consorts" of music and saw theatrical skits in the open air among the trees. A little while after the garden was turned into building lots, Colonel John Stuart obtained the corner lot at Tradd Street and built about 1772 one of the finest houses in the city. Probably a Jacobite who had been out in "the '45" rising, Stuart had come to South Carolina about 1748-and like a good many others of his business-like countrymen, gone into the Indian Trade. He had so succeeded that he was made Commissioner of Indian Affairs for all the southern colonies, with a seat in each of their councils, and could readily afford to pay eighteen thousand pounds, Carolina money, to give himself a beautiful and most dignified residence. Three years afterwards, in 1775, accused of inciting the frontier Indians against the Carolina rebels, Stuart fled to Florida where he remained the last few years of his life. For a while after the Revolution the house was owned by Alexander Gillon, a high-living, free-spending, Dutch adventurer who had been Commodore of South Carolina's own navy. -» 26 &
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    Always highly esteemed, it passed on to other well-off or prominent citizens. Just after the Confederate War it was the home of Peter C. Gaillard, who had lost an arm and won a colonelcy in the Southern army. He had come back to be elected mayor of Charleston in 1865, and serve until deposed by the occupying army. In 1934, John Mead Howells, the celebrated architect, rehabilitated this house for his own use. He replaced most carefully ornamental work removed from the drawing room and library to the Minneapolis Museum of Fine Arts, and re-designed appropriately the west wing that had been added in Victorian times and tastes. The house can never have been more charming than at the present time. Mr. and Mrs. John D. Wing have given it precisely the air of handsome continuity that belongs with its age. Their fine family portraits, excellent furniture, and valuable heirlooms of all sorts, brought from New York, from Baltimore, and Virginia, fulfill the story of these elegant old rooms with a parallel history of gracious living. This house, with its very dignified facing of shiplap weather-boarding, still carries one of the old insurance plaques under a third story window. Some of the freest carved decoration in the city in its high over-mantels represents the peak of Georgian design in this part of the world. Residence of Mr. and Mrs. John D. Wing •£ 27 &
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    Carl Julien No. 8—THE INGLIS' ARCH HOUSE 91 East Bay Street c. 1778 TTie residence of Mrs. Calvin McGowan Her "Grand Model" of 1672 gave Charleston a lot of over-sized squares that citizens soon cut up with undersized thoroughfares. Before 1730 one of the narrowest was a passage run through lands of the Elliott family to connect very busy East Bay, where they had their wharf, or "bridge," with quite busy Bedon's Alley, where they had other buildings. The passage got a permanent name before the Revolution when George Inglis lived and had his business in the house that stands where this one is today. The arched entrance took its name from Inglis and gave it to the passage. Until the devastating fire of 1778 burned this way, the arch was part of the "beautiful Bay Street of Charleston! Every house for a mile three stories high!" and all built with an "order and regularity" that made it appear vastly better than the waterfront of contemporary New York. Alteration of any number of sorts, at any number of times, makes the dating of the present building almost impossible, but it seems to have come in part from a rebuilding after 1778. •* 28 &
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    In 1794 it was purchased by Frederick Kohne, who made a large fortune in the business he conducted here. Dying, in 1829, in gratitude to the city, he left the property to the Orphan House of Charleston. It came back into private hands in 1836 and had a respectable career until the Confederate War. Meantime the harbor, whose edge had been at first just across the street, had retreated, and business had gone with it to other parts of the warterfront. With its neighborhood this house went downhill. When in a most desperate state of dilapidation, it was part of the locale on which DuBose and Dorothy Heyward created "Porgy and Bess." After 1938 it was one of six houses bought and largely rebuilt by the McGowans in a private slum clearance that redeemed a large part of Rainbow Row. Very interesting Eighteenth century French furniture and modern painting, a variety of handsome and charming furnishings of all sorts have added immeasurably to a fine house, cleverly contrived, on a delightful and historic site. Samuel CI •* 29 ■€€•
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    No. 9—JUDGE ELIHU HALL BAY'S HOUSE 76 Meeting Street c. 1785 The distinguished location of this house matches its distinguished history. To its north are the city's senior church and graveyard, two-hundred-year-old St. Michael's, and the first Anglican burying ground, where leaders in South Carolina life have been laid to rest ever since 1678. To the south is the hall built in 1803 for the old South Carolina Society from the designs of Charleston's notable gentleman architect, Gabriel Manigault. The house stands about midway between these buildings in age as well as position. Elihu Hall Bay, whose stutter kept him from a Presbyterian pulpit in his native Maryland, practiced law in Florida and moved here during the Revolution. In 1785, with the aid of his father-in-law, Dr. Andrew Turnbull, the former Scotch colonizer of the Minorcans in Florida, Mr. and Mrs. Bay bought most of the old "Tan Yard Lot." Here they built this late Georgian house with dependencies that included a law office on the alley, and a fine small garden to the south whos^e plan still exists. 30
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    Numerous Bay children have left remembrances here, comic and tragic. A son, with new-fangled political ideas, was fetched home drunk from a party rally and dumped, after the old Charleston custom, on the piazza for his family to retrieve. When the old judge did so, the neighborhood heard him lamenting, "Drunk, drunk, and a Democrat," with no doubt of the more evil emphasis. Another, killed in a duel, still haunts his boyhood home, having died forcibly resenting his description as just such another "tall, ugly, gawky, Yankee-looking fellow," as John Randolph of Roanoke. Between 1909 and 1942 the house was owned by the late Daniel Ravenel. He incorporated a fine leaded transom from his old family residence on Broad Street into the Bay's street doorway, built the wing room, now the Rector's study, put in arched doorways on the first floor and replaced interpolated Victorian mantels with two more of an age with the house, which is an early example of the completely developed Charleston "single house." Its dignified simplicity reflects the concentration on comfort and efficiency that marks the austere years following the Revolution. Since 1942, this has been the rectory of St. Michael's Parish. Today it is furnished with heirlooms of the Perrv and Dangerfield families, including particularly interesting pieces from Salem, and several memorabilia of Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry's famous expedition to Japan. Residence of the Reverend and Mrs. DeWolf Perry Hal Norvsll •* 31 «•
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    Carl Julien No. 10-MRS. WILLIAM HEYWARD'S HOUSE 31 Legare Street c 1789 This pleasant double house, with its rather unusual entrance across a stone flagged lower piazza, stands in the center of a never-divided lot from the "Grand Modell" 1672. About 1789 it was built by the widow of William Heyward, whose brother Thomas, had signed the Declaration of Independence. Like her in-laws, Hannah Shubrick Heyward was a successful rice planter. Her house shows this in "improve- ments" that were obviously made soon after its building. Among these is the "bow" to the south with its delicate palladian window in the large upstairs parlor. It remained her home until 1829. In this time it unhappily acquired a fairly well-authenticated ghost. Young James Heyward, son of the builder of this house, was riding out hunting on a plantation in the Euhaws. His hounds bayed a hog and he struck at them with the butt of his gun. It went off and shot him dead in the saddle. He appeared according to the legend, that very hour to his sister in the room that is now the library. And he has been seen there since, always in the same attitude, his head in his hand, seated pensive at the table. * 32 *
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    On its builder's death, the house went to her daughter, Mrs. William Drayton who, while she lived in Charleston, allowed the use of it to the celebrated French schoolmistress, Mile. Julie Datty. As a peniless refugee from the revolution in San Domingo, she found work as an expert laundress, but both her manner and her hands proclaimed her a lady. The Heywards were among those who then helped her establish a school where young ladies learned good French and better manners. Between 1837 and 1870 this house was the home of the Roper family, who sold it to the late Augustine T. Smythe. In the eighty-seven years of ownership, the Smythes have made many additions and some alterations to Mrs. Hey ward's building. Two of her handsomest rooms, however, remain much as she built them. The big parlor was lately restored to its original state. The library beneath it, where the ghost has been seen, seems to have assimilated the bookcases which now completely fill its walls. The house has the happy faculty of taking into its own pleasant atmosphere a variety of handsome furnishings. A palmetto, planted with much ceremony by the Ropers as an emblem o£ South Carolina on the day when the state seceded from the Union, now towers above the roof line of the southern bow. Residence of Mr. and Mrs. Augustine T. Smythe ■WmBunRBi Samuel Chamberlain •* 33 «■
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    Henry P. Staats No. 11—JOSEPH WINTHROP'S HOUSE 129 Tradd Street c. 1797 It is now hard to imagine that when Joseph Winthrop built his house its site was part of an open "green," its lot line backing on a salty creek, and the marshes of the Ashley were hardly a stone's throw from its back windows. Charleston, though much smaller than she is today, was a booming post-revolutionary town whose trade induced many clever young New Englanders to try their luck in the offices and shops along her Bay. Winthrop, from Boston, was one of these who made good. Here he married an elder sister of the miniaturist, Charles Fraser, and soon built this house on land of hers to be a home for what came to be a large family. Counting out a dining room, and lower and upper reception rooms, or parlors, the tall old house had but three rooms left for sleeping quarters; but the names •* 34 «■
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    engraved with a diamond on one of the old window panes show that eleven children and their parents once lived here pleasantly together. The principal rooms in the front of the house stand much as when they were built. They are decorated with woodwork designed in a very simple but most charming transitional style, keeping something from the late Georgian work of pre-revolu- tionary days, borrowing lightness from the Adam decoration that would overrun the town in a few years. An interesting detail of the dining room is a mantel gotten from the destroyed home of Henry Laurens, President of the Continental Congress, and one of the most able leaders of South Carolina in the Revolution. Behind the house a well designed block of brick service buildings, once a combination of a coach-house, stables and kitchens has been turned into pleasant apartments. It is shown in the photograph. The furnishings here are both cosmopolitan and biographical. After a lifetime of service in the Navy, the Pophams have brought home many notable things from China and Japan. The rest tell a family history with the heirlooms the Admiral has brought from New York and New Jersey and those that came to Mrs. Popham from Charleston and many outlying family plantations. Residence of Admiral and Mrs. William S. Popham -/■;■■ -;„,•:,-■■■:-;;-v-i'«:-- - -'■*'''!;-■''■■■ ''^Mi-MMM: If 71 111 •£ 35 «-
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    Samuel Chamberlain No. 12—THE SIMMONS-EDWARDS HOUSE 14 Legare Street c. 1800 Francis Simmons, a planter on John's Island, bought the northern half of this property in 1800 and promptly built upon it this very distinguished single house. Later to protect the "air and prospect", he purchased the southern half. He thus reunited under one ownership Lot 243 of the "Grand Modell" of Charles Town. He did not join it to his "yard", however, but left the wooden house that stood out of his way at the back of the premises to be used by a widowed cousin, who never paid him her rent. George Edwards, who bought both properties in 1816, two years after Simmons' death, disposed of the wooden house. According to tradition, it was rolled down the street to become the present No. 1 Legare Street. He then made a garden of the south lot and embellished it with the fine Regency fence and gates, and his house with its formal entrance. With proper pride he marked his work by placing his initials in the centers of the two curving iron grills that flanked his front door. Tradition says that he ordered this iron work and the elaborate marble cappings of his additions direct from Italy. The story goes that he sent a live-oak acorn to serve as a model for the tall finials, but the Italian marble cutters would have none of this and substituted the conventionalized pineapples, the emblem of hospitality. Edwards constructed also a •* 36 «•
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    very handsome fence between his yard and garden, the heads of whose pickets form an interesting pattern of intersecting curves. This place has long been a joy to the city and its owners, and it has been fortunate in them. For even when one, yielding to the fashion of the time, substituted mid-nineteenth century marble mantels in some of the rooms, he stored those he removed in the attic whence they were brought back into place a half-century later. The Howards have added immeasurably to the beauty and charm of this lovely residence. Their elegant period furniture and decorations fulfill the background of their house. Using Edwards' distinguished "improvements" as a basis for the design, they have turned the rear part of this ample old yard into a handsome, and appropriate, formal garden. Residence of Mr. and Mrs. Bushrod B. Howard Samuel Chamberlain 37 «
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    Van Anda No. 13—ASHLEY HALL 172 Rutledge Avenue c. 1816 Ashley Hall is probably Charleston's outstanding example of a suburban Regency Villa. Patrick Duncan, who had made a pleasant fortune as a tallow-chandler and then became a factor, built this residence about 1816, as the neighborhood was becoming the fashionable suburb of Cannonsborpugh. The house was bought in 1836 by James Reid Pringle, leader of the Unionist Party in the Nullification controversy, and Collector of Customs of Charleston District from 1819 to 1840. Following this, the house was owned and occupied by George A. Trenholm, a man of noted personal charm, and one of Charleston's greatest merchants, head of John Fraser and Company, and of its Liverpool Branch, Fraser, Trenholm and Company, and for some time Secretary of the Treasury of the Confederate States. •* 38 «•
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    After the Trenholms ceased to own it, the house became the residence of Charles Otto Witte, a cotton merchant and banker, and the father of a family of beautiful daughters. Many of the fine exotics and trees about the garden come from his time. In 1909, under the name of Ashley Hall, the house was made a school for girls by Dr. Mary Vardrine McBee. It is now the most direct link from this part of the south with the major women's colleges of the country. The exterior of the house is substantially as it was built, though the basement of the heroic portico has been enclosed. Decorations of the principal rooms, and the fine stairway spiralling up are unchanged, but in the stairhall on the second floor and at other points it is interesting to note the heavy moulding and decorations of Victorian times, probably applied when the house was Trenholm property. Van Anda •* 39 «•
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    No. 14—ROBERT WILLIAM ROPER'S HOUSE 9 East Battery c. 1838 It is a bit puzzling, to walk in a couple of blocks, out of the eighteenth century atmosphere of East Bay into the mid-nineteenth century architecture of East Battery. Your explanation is the sea wall, called in Charleston "The High Battery." Not until the eighteen thirties was this made high enough and strong enough to give protection from the hurricane tides that,swept up the harbor from the sea. Who Robert William Roper had for architect is not now known, but the versatile and able Edward Brickell White, who designed many of the city's finest buildings, among them the Huguenot Church and the Market Hall, had just begun to practice in Charleston. There is a high likelihood of his being the architect. In 1838, when the house was begun, the site was even more splendid than now, since nothing stood to the South between its monumental portico and the Ashley. Its heroic proportions are due to this. The rest of the house is in scale with and equal in finish to this distinguished piece of classic revival designing. As a whole, it is in many ways the most splendid private residence in Charleston. In 1845 its owner, dying without children, a large part of his inherited wealth went by his father's bequest to found the Roper hospital. Mrs. Roper sold the house in 1851. Since then it has been owned by a number of families, notably that of the late General Rudolph Seigling and the late Solomon R. Guggenheim. ■# 40 .&
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    Its present owners have faced and solved what is becoming an increasing problem in Charleston. Our large old houses, built by a more relaxed and serviced generation, are hard to adapt to modern requirements. By making the main rooms of this house into two beautiful apartments the Hasties have kept its integrity and charm and insured its further existence. It was the boast of the neighborhood that the only thing that stood between them and the Canary Islands was Fort Sumter. Look through the windows of the rooms pictured here and let your eye wander from that line and you can read two hundred and eighty years of history in the names of the landmarks about one of America's finest and most romantic harbors. Residence of Mrs. C. Norwood Hastie and Mr. and Mrs. J. Drayton Hastie Carl Julien •£41 «-
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    Carl Julien No. 15—MRS. JANE WIGHTMAN'S HOUSE 36 Chalmers Street c. 1840 The most recent of the houses on our tour through a century of Charleston's architecture, this residence was completed in 1840 in the early style of the Greek Revival. Almost on its 100th birthday, the house was purchased by Miss Josephine Pinckney, the Charleston author. By keeping the principal rooms intact and using the original woodwork as a model for her new decoration, Miss Pinckney has done a fine bit of preservation, retaining old characteristics while making a convenient modern residence. The delicate wrought iron balcony with its five-pointed star was added from a house standing just around the corner on Meeting Street, but now destroyed to make place for a filling station. The garden gates (properly marked with her cipher), the entrance door, and the garden itself are the owners own contribution to the outer part of her establishment. 42 &
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    In an upper room that looks out over one of the last cobbled pavements in the city and past it to such Charleston heirlooms as Robert Mills' Fireproof Building, Gabriel Manigault's City Hall, and the spire of St. Michael's, Miss Pinckney writes the novels that are now also a part of her region's heritage. The house is notable also for its handsome and often historic furniture and decorations. Over the mantel in the dining room is a portrait by James Earle of Miss Pinckney's great-grand-uncle, General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, of Revolutionary and diplomatic fame. The window curtains are from the splendid East Bay home of his father, Chief Justice Pinckney, which burned in the great fire of 1861. Residence of Miss Josephine Pinckney Carl Julien, •» 43 -fc
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    Mayor William McG. Morrison and Members of City Council cordially invite you to visit the Council Chamber Art Gallery in City Hall. It is also their wish that your visit here will be an enjoyable one and that you will return many times. The South Carolina National Bank Dual Lane Highway 16 Broad Street Charleston Heights North Charleston 253 King St. Mt. Pleasant Member of The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation WILLIAM M. MEANS Real Estate and Insurance Telephone 2-6651 60 Broad Street SQUIRREL INN & COTTAGES SUMMERVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA Putting Green Dining Room EVERY ROOM WITH PRIVATE BATH EUGENE SUTTER—Owner-Manager TELEPHONE—Summerville 4431 ->!- 44 v-
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    Middleton Gardens DATES FROM 1741 The Oldest Landscaped Garden in America OPEN EVERY DAY FOR THE ENTIRE YEAR MIDDLETON GARDENS TEA ROOM LUNCHEON AND TEA 12:00 - 5:30 NO GARDEN TICKET REQUIRED TO ENTER TEA ROOM TELEPHONE 6-3661 SEE CHARLESTON COMPLETELY Limousine ^^^^^^ Airplane GRAY LINE TOURS Francis Marion Hotel Phone 2-4444 IN CATFISH ROW ON CHURCH ST. at the Charleston gallery Antiques and Accessories and across the street 94 CHURCH STREET Bargain Shop — Antiques and Trifles Women's Sportswear, and Accessories JACK PATLA COMPANY 181 KING STREET TELEPHONE 3-7914 ANTIQUES IN THE CHARLESTON TRADITION Fine Furniture — Silver — China — Paintings * 45 *
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    On the Famous Battery Overlooking Charleston Harbor For Your Dining Pleasure Rampart Room INVITES YOU TO SEE HER COLLECTION OF WALLPAPERS AND FABRICS FOR CHARLESTON'S HISTORIC HOUSES Church at Water Charleston, S. C. DIAL 2-6772 MEMBER AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF DECORATORS COPLESTON'S LAUNDRY - CLEANERS 537 Meeting Street LORD ASHLEY COURT 21 1/2 miles South of City on U. S. 17 TELEPHONE 6-1611 AIR CONDITIONED ROOM TELEPHONES INSURANCE & REAL ESTATE 28 Broad it. Dial C. BISSELL JENKINS, Jr., President RIVERS T. JENKINS, Mgr. Insurance JEAN JENKINS MARTIN, Mgr. Real Estate •* 46 *
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    Like Another World Outdoor Restaurant and Gift Shop Spirituals Sung Saturday and Sunday afternoons During the Season Route 52, Twenty-four Miles North of Charleston New and Used Books Bookhunting Rental Library 9:30 to 6 THE BOOK BASEMENT 9 COLLEGE STREET (OPPOSITE COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON) Hundreds of books on Charleston, the Lowcountry, and South Carolina. Send for list. If you want a book, any book, ask us about it. If it is out of print, we can probably find it. MT. PLEASANT, S. C. HIGHWAY 17 3 MILES NORTH OF HISTORIC CHARLESTON L'nusual Old Timey "Charleston" Candies OLD SLAVE MART CANDIES PEACH LEATHER BENNE WAFERS Phone 2-4130 PECAN PRALINES Made by Original Old Receipes BENNE BRITTLE BENNE BITS 163 KING ST. D. TROWBRIDGE ELLIMAN PLANTATIONS TOWN AND COUXTKY BEAT. ESTATE DIAL 3-4181 SALES, KENTALS AND APPRAISALS Post Office Box 305 36 Broad St. Charleston, S. C. •* 47 *•
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    3 BROAD ST. CHARLESTON, S. C. PRINTERS OF THIS BOOKLET •» 48 «•
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    ANTIQUES Geo. C. Birlant & Co. 191 King Street Charleston, S. C. A C. L. LEACH HOTEL In The Historic Heart of Charleston ST. JOHN HOTEL Edmund B. Simms GENERAL MANAGER Dining — Tap Room MEETING STREET AT QUEEN ATTRACTIVE RATES Established 1888 263 KING STREET LEGERTON & CO., Inc. Charleston's Oldest and Largest Book Store Displaying a large collection of books on Charleston and South Carolina GREETINC CARDS GIFTS COLOR SLIDES OF CHARLESTON, HER HOMES AND GARDENS NORVELL'S CAMERA EXCHANGE CAROLINA'S COMPLETE CAMERA CENTER Francis Marion Hotel Phone 2-2113 • house of better values • shopping center for coastal Carolina one of the south's great department stores both corners—king street at warren Hretttfjm Inn and Qfca 2£mim GUEST HOUSE 35 TRADD ST. — TEA ROOM 75 CHURCH ST. LUNCHEONS — TEAS — DINNERS A Southern inn of quiet charm and old time hospitality KATHRYN D. McNULTA Telephone 2-3487 Century House Antiques •» 49 «•
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    marguerite sinkler valk a. i. d. Invites you to visit her Antique Shop attractively located in an 18th Century Charleston home Authentic Replicas of Fabrics and Wallpapers ni s alle seven sloll s alley (OFF CHURCH ST., NEAR WATER) MAGNOLIA GARDENS Acclaimed by Experts as the WORLD'S MOST BEAUTIFUL GARDEN OPEN THANKSGIVING TO MAY RECOMMENDED Mount Vernon Court FOUR AND A HALF MILES SOUTH ON U. S. 17 NEAREST TO WORLD FAMOUS GARDENS IN ROOMS TELEPHONE 6-2361 ROOM TELEPHONES YOUR HOSTS COL. DICK AND MYRT BRADHAM 54 Market Street OPEN 7 DAYS PER WEEK Noon to 11 P. M. stptf/fox foods'* HOLIDAY INN Dining Room 6 A. M. to 10 P. M. CAROLINA INN SET IN FOUR ACRES OF AZALEAS AND CAMELLIAS FOOD RECOMMENDED BY DUNCAN HINES SUMMERVILLE, S. C. H. OLIVER RILEY, Owner-Manager TEL. 2641 FAMED AVENUE OF OAKS BOONE HALL PLANTATION 8 MILES NORTH OF CHARLESTON ON U. S. HIGHWAY 17 STREET OF SLAVE QUARTERS - GIN HOUSE - ADMISSION CHARGE!} •» 50 *
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    ADVERTISING DIRECTORY ANTIQUE SHOPS INTERIOR DECORATORS Geo. C. Birlant & Co. Page 49 Marguerite Sinkler Valk Page 50 Marguerite Sinkler Valk Page 50 Virginia Chisolm Page 46 Jack Patla Co. Page 45 Sue Tarpley Sanders Page 45 Century House Page 49 LADIES CLOTHES BANKS Bess Page 45 The South Carolina National Page 44 MEN'S CLOTHES BOOKS Porgy Page 45 Book Basement Page 47 Legerton & Co., Inc. Page 49 MOTORS COURTS CHARLESTON DELICACIES Old Slave Mart Page 47 Brookgreen Meadows Lord Ashley Mount Vernon Old Town Page 47 Page 46 Page 50 Page 48 CLEANERS Holiday Inn Page 50 Copleston's Page 46 DEPARTMENT STORES Condon's Page 49 PHOTOGRAPHIC SUPPLIES Norvell's Camera Exchange Page 49 GARDENS Cypress Gardens Page 47 PRINTERS Walker, Evans & Cogswell Co. Page 48 Magnolia Gardens Middleton Gardens Boone Hall Plantation Page Page Page 50 45 50 REAL ESTATE & INSURANCE D. Trowbridge Elliman Jenkins Insurance Agency Page 47 Page 46 GIFT SHOPS William M. Means Page 44 Cypress Gardens Gift Shop Legerton & Co., Inc. Old Slave Mart The Goat Cart Page Page Page Page 47 49 47 45 RESTAURANTS Brewton Inn Tea Room Fort Sumter Dining Room Francis Marion Coffee Shop Page 49 Page 46 Page 48 HOTELS Fort Sumter Hotel Francis Marion Hotel St. John Hotel Page Page Page 46 48 49 Henry's Cypress Gardens Tea Room Middleton Gardens Tea Room Squirrel Inn, Summerville Holiday Inn Page 50 Page 47 Page 45 Page 44 Page 50 INNS Howard Johnsons Page 48 Brewton Inn Page 49 Squirrel Inn, Summerville Page 44 SIGHTSEEING Carolina Inn, Summerville Page 50 Gray Line Tours Page 45
Title:
Charleston's Historic Houses, 1957: Tenth Annual Tours Sponsored by Historic Charleston Foundation
Date:
1957
Description:
Descriptions and photographs of the historic houses on tour in 1957. Published by Historic Charleston Foundation, 1957; printed by Walker, Evans & Cogswell. Fifty-one pages. (Note: All a/k/a references pertain to the name of the house as listed in Jonathan Poston's book The Buildings of Charleston: A Guide to the City's Architecture; USC Press, 1997.)
Collection:
Historic Charleston Foundation's Tours of Homes
Contributing Institution:
Margaretta Childs Archives at Historic Charleston Foundation
Media Type:
Pamphlets
Personal or Corporate Subject:
Historic Charleston Foundation -- Tours
Topical Subject:
Architecture, Domestic -- South Carolina -- Charleston -- Guidebooks, Historic buildings -- South Carolina -- Charleston, Dwellings -- South Carolina -- Charleston
Geographic Subject:
Charleston (S.C.) -- Buildings, structures, etc., Low Country
Shelving Locator:
HCF.FOHG.001
S.C. County:
Charleston County (S.C.)
Material Type:
image/jpeg
Digitization Specifications:
301 ppi, 24-bit depth color, HP Scanjet 4890. Archival Masters are tiffs.
Copyright Status Statement:
Digital image copyright 2010, Historic Charleston Foundation. All rights reserved. For more information contact Margaretta Childs Archives at HCF, P.O. Box 1120, Charleston, SC 29402.