Charleston's Historic Houses, 1949: Second Annual Tours Sponsored by Historic Charleston Foundation

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    CHARLESTON'S HISTORIC HOUSES A Series of Tours Through Private Homes in Charleston, South Carolina March 21 through Sponsored by Historic Charleston Foundation 135 Church Street Charleston, S. C. " .. .to preserve and use the architectural and historic treasures of the Charleston area".
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    CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA Histories of Houses Compiled by Samuel Gaillard Stoney More than any other city in this country Charleston is a living history of herself. As such she is a national heritage, with street upon street of buildings that serve today as they served the past generations, buildings loved for their beauty, their dignity and comfort, and cherished for their fame. Each year thousands who have come to visit the world-famous gardens have walked also through Charleston's vivid pictures of the past, noting the amenities of the "single" house and omnipresent piazza, the curious "front" doors, the formidable garden walls, the big handsome iron gates, each representing some individualism of the community, and all showing together styles of architecture of the past two centuries: CHARLESTON IS NOW OPENING THESE GATES AND DOORS. Charlestonians are now admitting the public to some of their finest houses. In the garden season of 1949 owners of ninteen distinguished homes will show them for the benefit of this historic city, as living parts of the community, and to preserve its beauty and its interest for the nation. Historic Charleston Foundation, a non-profit, educational institution, seeks to preserve and use the architectural and historic treasures of the Charleston area, not as museums but as living parts of the community. With funds from gifts (which are tax free), bequests, and the operation of tours, the Foundation offers planning and financial aid to preserve Charleston's heritage. General Information TOURS: There will be a morning and an afternoon tour each day, Monday, through Friday, and a morning tour each Saturday, with a special tour on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday evenings. The first two tours, A and B, will be shown March 21 through April 2. The last two, C and D, will be shown April 4 through April 16. The fee for each daytime tour is $5.00 tax included. The special evening tours are $1.00 plus tax. Transportation when desired will be available at reasonable cost. Full information and tour tickets may be secured from the tour headquarters in the Dock Street Theatre, or from the hotels. RESERVATIONS: It is advisable to make room reservations before coming to Charleston. Write to the hotels listed below, or to the Daniel Ra- venel Company, Travel Bureau, 54^ Broad Street, which lists rooms available in private homes. Hotels and Inns Brewton Inn—Single, $5; Double, $6 up. Charleston Hotel—Single, $2 to $4; Double, $4 to $12. Fort Sumter Hotel—Single, $6 to $12; Double, $8 to $14. Francis Marion Hotel—Single, $4 up; Double, $8 up. St. John Hotel—Single, $3.50 to $5; Double, $5 to $8. Timrod Hotel—Single, $1.75 to $3; Double, $2.75 to $5.50. TRAVEL INFORMATION: Charleston is served by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and the Southern Railway; by the Delta Airlines, Eastern Airlines; and National Airlines; by the Greyhound Bus Line; and by U. S. Highways 17, 52 and 78. TOURS PRESENTED ONLY AS FOLLOWS: TOUR A 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., March 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26. 3 p.m. to 6 p.m., March 28, 29, 30, 31, April 1. WILLIAM GIBBES' HOUSE. 64 South Battery, c. 1772. This splendid Georgian Mansion was built by William Gibbes at the water side overlooking the long wharf that carried his business out to the channel of the Ashley River. Both after the Revolution and in modern times the house was enriched and enlarged. It has had such owners as the Rev. John Grimke Drayton, who planted the Magnolia Gardens, and the late Mrs. Washington A. Roebling, widow of the builder of the Brooklyn Bridge, who restored both house and garden. It is now the home of Mr. and Mrs. John Ashby Farrow. The Ball-room with its high cove ceiling, rich furnishings and detail, is one of the outstanding rooms in the South. MISS AMARINTHEA ELLIOTT'S HOUSE. 16 Legare Street, c. 1795. Miss Elliott, some times referred to as "plantress", and member of an extensive Low Country family, seems to have built this "single" house, in the decade following the Revolution. It is characteristically quite simple without and handsome within, decorated with a modified use of the Adam style. Having been restored only last year by Mr. and Mrs. James M. Hagood, it is now open for the first time. CHARLES ELLIOTT'S HOUSE. 43 Legare Street, c. 1759. Shortly after his marriage, Charles Elliott, a flourishing young planter, seems to have built this massively handsome early example of the "single" house on what was then called Friend Street. From the Elliotts it passed to such well known Charleston families as the Brailsfords, the Deas and the Hugers. It was purchased in 1911 by Henry Rutledge Buist, who at that time remodelled the street facade. It is now the home of Mrs. Buist. Throughout the interior are fine and rare pieces of furniture together with a most unusual collection of mirrors and portraits. JOSEPH WINTHROP'S HOUSE. 129 Tradd Street, c. 1797. Joseph Winthrop, one of a long succession of New Englanders to seek and find fortunes here, married a sister of Charles Fraser, the minaturist, getting as part of her dower the land where he built this house. Afterwards it served his family as a home for a century and a quarter. The restrained Adam style of the principal rooms is practically in its orginal condition. It is now the residence of Admiral and Mrs. William S. Popham, who have furnished it with old family pieces. TOUR B 10 a.m. to 1 p-m., March 28, 29, 30, 31, April 1, 2. 3 p.m. to 6 p.m., Marh 21, 22, 23, 24, 25. COLONEL WILLIAM RHETT'S HOUSE. 54 Hasell Street, c. 1712. Built in the reign of Queen Anne by William Rhett, Vice-Admiral of the Province who cleared its coasts of pirates. Believed to be the oldest home in Charleston. Occupied and altered interestingly by several prominent and wealthy families. Birthplace of Wade Hampton, commander of Confederate cavalry, and governor of South Carolina. Lately restored and made their town residence by Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin Kittredge, Jr., the house is distinguished by its unusual Georgian plaster ornaments, exquisite woodwork and furnishings. ] MRS. ANNE BOONE'S HOUSE. 47 East Bay Street, c. 1740. Anne Axtell Boone, of Mt. Boone Plantation, daughter of Landgrave Daniel Axtell, and widow of Joseph Boone, leader in the revolution against the Proprietary Govern ment, seems to have rebuilt this house in the walls of one burned in the fire of 1740. For a time it was the property of Thomas Boone, Governor successively of New Jersey and South Carolina. It was afterwards long the home and place of business of William Roper, merchant of Charleston, whose wharf lay just across East Bay Street. A fine mid-Georgian house, after 1800 modified from time to time as it became excluively a residence. Now the home of Mrs. Sarah Bennett Smith. CAPERS HUGER SMITH HOUSE. 69 Church Street, c. 1745. A fine early example of the double house, built about 1745 by Richard Capers. Afterwards this was the home of Jacob Motte, treasurer of the Province, and the ancestor of many notable Charlestonians. Bought in 1868 by Mrs. William Mason Smith, this home has belonged ever since to her family. It is now the home of her granddaughters, Miss Caroline R. Huger Smith, and Miss Alice R. Huger Smith, the distinguished water-colorist. The house is considered one of the finest and oldest in the city, with a large double-drawing room on the second floor. The dining room was critically damaged by direct bit of a Federal shell in the bombardment of 1863-1865. THOMAS LEGARE'S HOUSE. 90 Church Street, c. 1760. Built in very handsome mid-Georgian style by a merchant of a well known Huguenot family when Church Street was a lively part of Charleston's business district. Now the home of Mr. W. Lucas Simons, a typical piazza, overlooking a garden with arched brick walls makes a charming entrance to a house filled with family furniture and portraits. TOUR C 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., April 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 3 p.m. t0 6 p.m., April 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. GEORGE EVELEIGH'S HOUSE. 39 Church Street, c. 1738. When the Eveleigh's built this house they had for some time been at the head of the great Indian trade that bartered with British goods far out into the mountains of Tennessee and the valley of the Mississippi. Later it was occupied by Dr. John Louis Polony, emigre from San Domingo and botanist of reputation. This residence was here when Water Street was in part a creek. It has long been the home
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    of Miss Mary O. Marshall, and her family. Most of the furniture is of Charleston origin and has been for generations in the owners family. COLONEL ISAAC MOTTE'S HOUSE. 30 Meeting Street, c. 1769. According to tradition Isaac Motte, a veteran of the Cherokee War, and a fighting colonel in the Revolution, bought this house and completed it about 1769. For a century and three quarters it remained in his family, until in 1947 Mrs. Victor Morawetz purchased it, and modernized it. Mrs. Morawetz has removed the accumulated coats of paint of 180 years to expose the fine old Cypress panelling. CAPTAIN JOHN MORRISON'S HOUSE. 125 Tradd Street, c. 1807. John Morrison, successful mariner and merchant, built this fine single house. Mr. Frederic Stevens Allen and his family have added to it by skillful renovations, the planting of a fascinating garden, and a most outstanding collection of French furniture and Chinese Lowestoft. DRAYTON-MANIGAULT HOUSE. 6 Gibbes Street, c. 1806. Built bv Isaac Parker. Enlarged handsomely by Col. William Drayton after 1820. Reecorated in part by the Manigault family who occupied it for many years after 1837. A most successful example of a house designed particularly for the comforts and amenities of the life of this region, with formal, stately rooms and much ornate woodwork. The residence of Mr. and Mrs. Francis G. Boggs. TOUR D 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., April 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. 3 p.m. to 6 p.m., April 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. WILLIAM HENDRICK'S BUILDINGS. 83 Church Street, c. 1749. After the fire of 1740 cleared out this part of town, William Hendricks, a planter in Christ Church Parish, built these most agreeable twin houses with stores beneath them for rental. Since 1936 Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds D. Brown have remodelled the buildings, one for a residence the other for a store, and made a winter home for themselves in the old kitchen behind the archway. A charming bit of imaginative restoration, typical of much that has been done in Charleston in recent years, combining New England antiques, and the immense kitchen fireplace and rafters of this Low-Country outbuilding. THOMAS ROSE'S HOUSE. 59 Church Street, c. 1735. Thomas and Beuler Elliott Rose built this very handsome early Georgian house when this part of the town was just ceasing to be a community of ship-builders. Just after the Revolution the house had a romantic touch added to its history when Dr. Joseph Ladd Brown, a poet as well as a physician, died here from a wound got in a duel concerning a lovely actress, called by the town "Perdita". His ghost supposedly still haunts the stairs. Restored by Mr. and Mrs. Frank E. Whitman in 1929, and now the home of Mr. and Mrs. Henry P. Staats, it retains its original early Georgian panelling, and is furnished with a fine collection of Adam, Chippendale and Heppelwhite. YOUNG-JOHNSON HOUSE. 35 Church Street, c. 1770. Thomas Young, then an extensive Charleston builder, finished this characteristic "single" house shortly before the Revolution. In the beginning of the nineteenth century it was long the home of the versatile Dr. Joseph Johnson, physician, historian, and intendant of Charleston, and the president of the city's branch of the second Bank of the United States. Mr. Wil- mer Hoffman, the well-known sculptor, who lately restored and redecorated the house, has furnished it with a most interesting collection of family furniture and objects of art, with a number of pieces of his own famous work, and with many fine things he collected in Europe, ably demonstrating the harmonious blending of many periods and styles. COLONEL OTHNIEL BEALE'S HOUSE. 101 East Bay Street, c. 1740. Just after the outbreak of King George's War this part of Charleston was swept by a great fire. Othniel Beale, an immigrant from New England, and Colonel of provincial troops in charge of strengthening the town's fortifications, then bought and built on this property and the one to the south of it a combination of stores and residences. Handsome rooms panelled with Low-Country cypress show how a merchant of Charleston lived. This is now the home of Mr. and Mrs. Lionel K. Legge, who in 1939 first began the rehabilitation, from slums, of the interesting block of houses in which theirs stands. SPECIAL EVENING TOURS Three evenings a week, on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from March 21 to April 16, houses will be on tour. These tours, which include one house only, are from 8 p.m. to 10 p.m. Price: $1.00 plus Tax. 8 p.m. to 10 p.m., March 21, 28, April 4, 11. MRS. JANE WIGHTMAN'S HOUSE. 36 Chal- mer's Street, c. 1835. Built early in the Greek Revival style. Remodelled as a residence by Miss Josphine Pinckney, the Charleston author. Another fine example of the smaller Charleston home, notable for its handsome and historic furnishings, many from the two family plantations of El Dorado and Fairfield. 8 p.m. to 10 p.m., March 23, 30, April 6, 13. THE BRANFORD-HORRY HOUSE. 59 Meeting Street, c. 1751. Shortly after their marriage William Branford, and bis wife Elizabeth Savage, appear to have built this distinguished house on part of her property, in the fine style of the time. About 1830, their grandson, Elias Horry, ex-intendant of Charleston, and president of the South Carolina Railroad, added the porch over the street, and made changes in the first story. The panelled interiors are unusual and interesting, and are furnished with fine English and American pieces of Colonial Charleston. Now the home of Mrs. Percy Gamble Kammerer. 8 p.m. to 10 p.m., March 25, April 1, 8, 15. TIMOTHY FORD'S HOUSE. 54 Meeting Street, c. 1800. This very handsome house in the Adam style was built by Timothy Ford, a native of New Jersey who became a Charlestonian. It was owned by his descendants, the Ravenels, for over a century. According to tradition, Lafayette was entertained here. Now the residence of Dr. and Mrs. Ransom S. Hooker, who will show the lovely rooms and fine old furniture by candlelight. Note: Samuel Gaillard Stoney, a member of the Board of Trustees of Historic Charleston Foundation, is President of the Huguenot Society of South Carolina, vice- president of the South Carolina Historical Society, an honorary Curator of the Charleston Museum, and author of "Planations of the Carolina Low Country," and other South Carolina volumes. Copyright, 1949, by Historic Charleston Foundation.
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    CHARLESTON'S HISTORIC HOUSES Tours Sponsored by Historic Charleston 135 Church Street Charleston, S. C.
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    In 1940, farsighted members of the Board of Directors of the Carolina Art Association determined to take action for the preservation of the many fine architectural and historic buildings which were Charleston's priceless heritage. The Civic Services Committee was formed and, with a grant from the Carnegie Corporation, a study was begun to determine the number of buildings within the city of architectural or historic value, and to classify them as to their importance. This tremendous undertaking was completed in 1944 with the publication of "This is Charleston", a classified directory of 1168 buildings worthy of recognition. In the march of time subsequent to the completion of this study, Charleston lost many of these valuable edifices through disfigurement or destruction, attributable to ignorance in the guise of progress, and it was deemed advisable to make some further move to implement the cause of preservation. Again the Carolina Art Association, following a suggestion made by Mr. Kenneth Chorley, President of Colonial Williamsburg, recommended that a corporation be formed for the dual purpose of educating the public as to the worth of these many fine old buildings, and to assist in their preservation whenever their destruction seemed imminent. From this group, and through private subscription, Historic Charleston Foundation was incorporated in 1947. This Foundation is a non-profit, educational institution seeking to aid and preserve Charleston's heritage, not only for those who live here, but for all who come to enjoy its beauty. * 2 «•
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    The Board of Trustees of Historic Charleston Foundation, taking cognizance of the increasing difficulty of maintaining private institutions through public subscription, wisely sought some means whereby the Foundation might earn its own support. With this thought in mind, the annual Tours of Historic Houses was determined upon. For what could be more fitting than that those homes which have been better cared for through their ownership, should aid the institution dedicated to the preservation of those equally worthy hut less fortunate. For the ultimate aim of Historic Charleston Foundation is to preserve and use the architectural and historic treasures of the Charleston area, not as museums, but as living parts of the community. —C. Bissau, Jenkins, Jr. President, Historic Charleston Foundation ■*'3 *■
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    The earliest of the houses on our tours was built in 1712 and the latest in 1822 so that over a century of Architecture is presented for your enjoyment. They all belong to that fortunate age which saw the finest flowering of taste throughout the English speaking world. During this period, England was able to maintain high standards, thanks to the patronage of the arts assumed by her landed gentry and prosperous merchants. After the middle of the 18th Century, London became more and more the center from which new influences spread. The capital set the lead for the provincial cities and the colonial centers followed her example after a time lag of several years. Even fire regulations adopted in London eventually were reflected in building practices on our Atlantic seaboard. During the 18th Century, it was considered good business for a man of means to spend his surplus wealth on the improvement of the buildings and grounds of his estates. He was careful therefore, to employ the best architectural talent available. Men of more modest resources were content with less ambitious programs, but they saw to it that the same fastidious care for the amenities prevailed. This taste was universally understood and accepted with rules as absolute as those of grammar and rhetoric. While such rigid controls led to a certain uniformity and lack of invention, it made for an impressively high average of performance. Every English gentleman in the 18th Century, whose credit permitted, sent his eldest son on the grand tour and did not expect him home until he had paid his respects to the paragons of architectural perfection on the European continent. This introduction to the recognized examples, though often superficial, at least established admirable standards that were accepted without question. While only the very great employed the famous architects, the influences of these artists was disseminated far and wide by innumerable publications illustrating their masterpieces and expounding their principles. •* 4 ■«•
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    Scores of great country houses were abuilding in all the English counties in the first half of the 18th Century, employing armies of skilled workmen of all kinds for many years under the most exacting supervision. Once standards were established, smaller and simpler homes were built with the same conscientious care and workmanlike finish. Many such master craftsmen bettered their fortunes by shipping to the American Colonies and contributing their knowledge and skill to our early architecture. Any attempt to establish rigid stylistic categories seems both misleading and futile, architecture being constantly in a state of change as it responds to the many influences that determine its forms and functions. Throughout this period, the character of taste changed with each generation, but what is significant for us is that its quality remained at a constantly high level. By a happy accident of history, this City was one of the many beneficiaries of this era of taste, not assuredly in its most grandiose form, but in one of its simpler and more engaging moods that survives as a solace and a joy to a more distracted age. —ALBERT SIMONS Fellow American Institute of Architects..
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    Charleston began in the April of 1670, the pleasantest time of her year, when the first colony, sent to settle what would become South Carolina, was led to her most excellent harbor and fine site by a friendly Indian Chief, the Cassique of the Kiawahs. The colonists were already a grand mixture of English, Irish, West Indians and Ber- mudans, but there were several men of experience among them. As soon as possible these had the tip of the wide peniitsula, that was called Oyster Point, reserved for a future town, but, being properly aware that the Spaniards of Florida, their nearest colonial neighbors, considered them dangerous trespassers, they started the first settlement on a very defensible finger of land to the west of the Ashley and several miles further from the bar than Oyster Point. Wars in Europe and politics in England hindered the growth of the colony for ten years, but the first Charlestonians were able to scare away an expedition from St. Augustine in the first summer, and by 1672 felt secure enough to order that the site on Oyster Point be enlarged and marked out for a town. This was done from a "Grand Modell" which provided most of the principal streets between the Battery and the line of Beaufain Street, then continued as a boundary over to the Cooper. You can mark where it crossed the principal "path" up the peninsula by the "bend" in King" Street. The "Grand Modell" provided two "great" streets, now called Broad and Meeting, to quarter roughly the largest area of solid ground within the creek-riddled site. These "great" streets intersected in a market place, lost long since under public [buildings. Broad Street, then called Cooper, came to the river of the same name at about the center of the long bluff that ran along East Bay, from the head of East Battery to the Markets. This was used as wharfage until better could be built. After 1679, when the town was officially brought across the Ashley the new Charles Town began growing inland from the bluff along streets then considered very wide and regular. Time and tempests, fashions and fires, bombardments and earthquakes have, in the centuries since, combined to destroy every known building from the Charles Town of the seventeenth century. Old prints, and such ancient plantation houses as that at Medway, give us some notion of what they were, but the lay of the city from the "Grand Modell" now remains its most authentic souvenir of that time. If the town's first ten years were hampered by the troubles abroad, the next twenty were complicated by rows at home. Once the wars were over, substantial West Indians came here bringing the form of plantations from the islands where they were being- perfected. A tolerant constitution induced groups of Protestant minorities, suffering in the Counter Reformation, to colonize here. A considerable number of French Huguenots and English Puritans began to arrive in 1680. Quakers from England, Scotch Covenanters, Puritans from Long Island, and Baptists, driven from Maine by the theo- crats of Massachusetts, helped to make up a fine mixture that lost no heat from certain adventurous souls, who certainly had been privateers, and were freely accused of having been pirates. These made the town a smelting pot that boiled of its own frictional heat until the coming of the new century. -» 6
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    At the same time the community found things to grow on. Bold traders carried a barter business with the Indians beyond the Mississippi. Rice was developed as a plantation staple. South Carolina began to feed the sugar islands, whence so many settlers came to her; to send them oak staves for their puncheons, and pine for their buildings. All three businesses lasted for many years; rice, for over two centuries. But loneliness, danger and the virtues of the harbor kept the isolated colony closely integrated with Charles Town, until the town was too strong to brook the rise of nearby rivals. With Virginia twice as far away as St. Augustine, and the vicious capes about Hatteras adding to the longer distance, the town was forced to be self-sufficient and to think like a city when it was still the size of a village. The opening of the eighteenth century brought Queen Anne's War to add to this characteristic. The thick built part of the town was fortified with walls and bastions run in from the ends of the bluff and along the line of Meeting Street. These further compressed building as they made the town a true "city of refuge". Trouble followed trouble to keep it so. During the war, South Carolinians drove off a combined Spanish and French fleet and ravaged Florida up to the very walls of the stout little "castle" at St. Augustine. They then led Indian auxiliaries to drive the Tuscaroras out of North Carolina, and threatened the rival French traders at Pensacola and Mobile. Later they had to turn and fight for existence against a general rising of Indians led by the Yemasees. Then, when they had saved the colony, they had to send out naval expeditions to clear their coast and the North Carolina inlets of a heavy infestation of pirates. Colonel William Rhett, whose old house we have the privilege of showing, led in this work and brought home quite a number of these human pests to be hanged outside our walls. To cap everything, the colony in 1719 revolted from the inefficient rule of its Proprietors and was made a Royal Province. As such it throve largely until the Revolution. In those fifty-odd years Charles Town learned to live rather splendidly for a little capital and town-of-trade of a smallish colony. Hundreds of thousands of deer skins, not so valuable as peltries, but bulking into money, were brought in by boat and pack- train from all over our Southeast. Rice led planters up and down the Low Country of South Carolina and then across the Savannah into land this colony claimed between Savannah and Florida. King George's War came like Balaam to curse, by breaking up temporarily our rice market in Southern Europe, and, like the prophet, remained to bless, by causing the introduction of indigo, first as a substitute for rice then as an additional staple that made many a fortune in the Low Country, before it was lost in the Revolution. Money brought education abroad and culture at home. A gracious way of living in a semi-tropical climate began to call for architectural plans and details of our own. Most notable of these plans is that of the "single" house, so well illustrated by that of Mrs. Anne Boone, and so commonly and generally distributed. The town at this time completed or built many fine public buildings. At the beginning of the century one of the most peace-giving measures for the colony bjad, been the establishment of the Church of England. This put religion into government and took it out of politics very effectively. It also created a number of fine and interesting- church buildings in the parishes and the town. The second church of St. Philip's congregation, begun shortly before Colonel Rhett built his house, and finished after the colony went to the crown, was conceded for many years to be the finest ecclesiastical structure in England's American colonies. After King George's War, St. Michael's was built where the town had its first place of worship in a corner of the market place. About the same time two other equally fine "Palladian" buildings were given the cor- 45- 7 *
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    ners across Meeting Street. The Guard House, standing where the Post Office is now, was first butchered, then completely destroyed. The State House, burned out in 1788, was mangled somewhat in being made into a Court for the county, and has suffered severely since. Stopping the Bay end of Broad Street, the town built a fine Exchange that still exists, though sadly changed. Taking these all together, and with such fine houses as those of William Gibbes and the Branfords to fill in, Charleston must have been an impressively fine little city. The Revolution stopped almost all architecture and a great deal else until about 1790. Then the cotton gin and power mills for cleaning rice broke the bottle necks in a new and an old industry. By 1800 these had brought prosperity back to a town which had dignified its position by changing its name to Charleston. Its new Republicans found in the style of Robert Adam an untried and charming way of decorating, and/or planning their homes. More often this delicate and refined fashion was applied to the "single" house, as you will see it in that of Timothy Ford, but, as Charleston was then spreading out into a number of suburbs, you will find an extraordinary lot of Adam houses scattered all over the city. Hunting them in our by-ways adds to the sport of a visit to, or a life in, Charleston. The War of 1812 set a sharp limit to this period and kept another from developing before 1820. Then Charleston discovered "Regency". Just as they had done with Adam's decoration, they now used the similar but more robust succeeding style, most often to modify their "single" houses. William Mason Smith's house is an example of a handsome compromise. Detail and facade may be Regency, but analyze the plan and you will find the principal rooms banked along the southern side of the building to constitute what is practically a "single" house with the stair pulled out to one side. And behind one conventional wing of the facade rise three tiers of masked piazzas. While Charleston began politically to measure the worth of the Federal Union in the 'thirties and 'forties, and to despair of remaining in it during the 'fifties, the architectural "revivals" came to her. Greek, Gothic and Classic she treated alike, largely as she had handled the Adam and Regency styles before them. Here and there you find developed "Greek" or "Classic'' houses, but the styles, when not modified to our plans, were largely left to public buildings. Gothic of the eighteenth-century, "Strawberry Hill" sort, had been used here already, in a playful but very limited way, on servants' houses and stablings. Be it said to the city's great credit that she never, in the days of its revival, debased it to use on a dwelling house. The Greek orders were used with similar discretion. You will see heroic Doric employed by a number of churches, but no Charleston house is huddled behind a minature of a temple portico. Ionic and Corinthian, Greek and Roman, yes; but desecration of the great style, never! The war that Charleston began came nearer destroying her economically than physically. Despite the bombardments of three years, and all the other delapidations of the poverty and chaos that followed, the adventure was a bit like the erruption that overwhelmed Pompei and at the same time partly preserved for us that once wicked, charming, little city. Charleston's architectural life was well nigh in a state of suspended animation during all the ghastly "late" Victorianisms and the slow recovery of good taste after them. You can see some exceedingly dreadful examples of what a little money did to decent Charleston houses in the 'seventies and 'eighties, but only enough of them to point the moral. Poverty, virtuous as when St. Francis embraced her, kept the city relatively pure. So when a new era opened after World War I, there was much to love, to admire, and to save. With a mixture of faith and works, part of Charleston is trying to keep the best of her for the nation and posterity. SAMUEL GAILLARD STONEY •» 8 *
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    HOUSES on the TOURS Descriptive Histories By SAMUEL GAILLARD STONEY
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    No. 1COLONEL WILLIAM RHETT'S HOUSE 54 Hasell Street c. 1712 This fine residence is considered the oldest dwelling in Charleston. Once it was a plantation home, built outside the fortified walls of a young frontier city still guarding its existence from hostile Spaniards. Then the house stood at the head of its own avenue leading down to the "broad path", the highway to the country that is now King Street and Charleston's main shopping district. Colonel William Rhett, the builder of this house, was the vice-admiral of the Province of South Carolina. He went from the finishing of his home to the harder task of freeing the coast of a plague o;f pirates. In this he captured the nefarious Stede Bonnet and brought him back to Charleston to be hung at what is now the Battery. Wade Hampton, Lieutenant General in the Confederacy and a great leader of South Carolina after the war, as Governor and Senator, was born here. -*M0«-
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    Shortly before World War II, Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin Kittredge, Jr., whose family made the famous Cypress Gardens at their Cooper River plantation, bought this house and the fine Greek Revivial one just to the west of it. Out of these and their numerous out-buildings, the Kittredges have created a number of small, convenient and pleasant residences in what is virtually a private housing development. The rooms shown are very interesting, not only for their age but also for their exceptionally fine furnishings and objects of art. Notable among these are rare Flemish paintings on glass, a collection of Meissen china, a Chinese Chippendale secretary in the drawing room, and an extraordinary chair used by eighteenth century cock-fighters as a combination of seat and desk. The dining room, one of the handsomest in the house, has large scale plaster wall panels and ornaments that are most unusual in Charleston. When the Kittredges came into possession of the house, the dining room mantel, long since removed, was found tucked away in the basement and replaced. Such sympathetic restorations, and a beautiful selection of colors, have given the house a style that must have satisfied even its first distinguished resident of nearly two and a half centuries ago. Residence of Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin R. Kittredge, Jr. Carl Julicn
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    Van Anda No. 2—THOMAS ROSE'S HOUSE 59 Church Street c. 1735 Time, change, fires, wars and an earthquake have left quite an architectural hiatus for us between this town house of Thomas Rose and Colonel William Rhett's plantation home. Rose apparently built in 1735. His unsymetrical floor plan is almost unaltered. His large dignified panels, robust cornices, and other simple early Georgian decorations are nearly as he left them. A delicate little Adam mantel was evidently placed in the drawing room as a "modernization" at the beginning of the nineteenth century, but this adds a curious touch that is rather charming. And this is the most noticeable change. ■&-12-*
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    The house, like many others in Charleston, has a ghost, but this one is friendly and whistles as he ascends the stair. He is supposed to belong to a Dr. Joseph Ladd Brown; a Rhode Islander by birth, a M. D. by vocation, but a poet and something of a knight- errant by avocation. While living here, in 1786, he defended the performance of a lovely actress then playing in Charleston. The dispute turned into a newspaper controversy ; a duel followed, and poor young Brown, who was only twenty-two, was fatally wounded and brought back to this house to die. Though most of the things in it might fit well in museums, it is still happily a home. So you will find furnishings from a number of countries, ages and styles combined to give it loveliness. The drawing room is a most charming example. It is a room whose proportions and detail are extremely pleasing. Even a certain casualness in the handwork of its long-dead builders adds to the effect. A magnificent Tabriz animal carpet, dating from the late fifteenth or early sixteenth century, now gives the room a golden glow. This is emphasized by window hangings carefully suited to the period of the house. These and its superb furnishings and pictures make this one of the most distinguished rooms in Charleston. Residence of Mr. and Mrs. Henry P. Staats ■g; ... Van And a •*! 3 #•
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    No. 3 GE0RGE EVELEIGHS HOUSE 39 Church Street c. 1738 Residence of Miss Mary O. Marshall Nestled into the "bend" in Church Street, behind a minute park-like spot, is a house that so closely resembles that of Thomas Rose, just around the corner, that it was probably in building before its neighbor was finished. George Eveleigh, to whom it is credited, was then a wealthy Charlestonian whose agents bartered British goods to the Indians of the Southeast for the thousands of deer skins that were then shipped away to Europe. Like Rose's house, it has been little changed by the long years of its life. Here also the rooms are splendidly panelled with wide cypress boards brought in from Low Country swamps and fashioned by the tasteful handicraft of skilled carpenters. Here also Adam mantels have replaced the originals. 14
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    For many years this house has been the home of Miss Mary O. Marshall. Much of her furniture was made in Charleston, and most of it has served many generations of her kindred. Their good teste makes the collection a history of local amenities. As in most old Charleston houses, the drawing room is on the second floor. Here it gains spaciousness by taking up the entire front of a comparatively small house. Tall panels give grace to its proportions. The fireplace has an Adam mantel, saved from the town house of Nathaniel Heyward, once a celebrated and successful rice planter. Interest is centered here by arched doorways, one leading to a passage, the other framing a shell closet made for the display of fine china, now filled with Lowestoft, famille rose and Chelsea porcelain of the Marshall family's collecting. Carl Julien •»15*
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    No. 4 MRS. ANNE BOONE'S HOUSE 47 East Bay Street c. 1740 Residence of Mrs. Sarah Bennett Smith This house seems to be one of the earliest of that architectural specialty called in Charleston a "single" house. One room thick and two rooms long, with a staircase in its middle, and set endwise to the street, the plan suited a small city lot and a climate that called for cross ventilation. At first, many "single" houses like this one had a door in the street front letting you into a room that was used for an office or shop. The side doors to the stair hall then served as a domestic entrance to the living quarters above stairs. Piazzas on the feouth and west sides completed this model.16
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    The walls within which Mrs. Anne Boone built seem, from their sturdiness, to have long antedated the fire of 1740 when all this part of Charleston was burned out. They may well have survived from the house she inherited in 1733 from her husband, Joseph Boone. All the building within them, however, comes from after the fire. Both of the Boones link us with South Carolina's early history. He came from a large company of Puritans who, fleeing from persecutions, came out from England in the sixteen eighties. Anne Boone's father, Daniel Axtell, the son of a regicide, for bringing out this party was made one of the hereditary nobility of Carolina with the title of Landgrave. Boone led in many of the political battles of these "Dissenters" in the opening years of the eighteenth century. Anne Boone's home, which stands much as she left it when she died in 1749, is therefore doubly interesting. Mrs. Sarah Bennett Smith, who has lately come into possession and residence here, has furnished the old house with many fine things that, like the house, are both lovely to look at and object lessons in Charleston history. The Bennetts, from whom most of these furnishings come, were a notably versatile and active family. At the same time many of them were planters and millers, builders and architects, who made the brick and sawed the timbers they would turn into houses, and milled the rice they had grown. So you wall find their Chippendale and Hepplewhite, their Empire and Victorian things, interspersed with furniture built with wood from their own mills and by their own cabinetmakers. These stand w7ell too among their more sophisticated neighbors to give an air of comfort and originality to the general charm of the house. ■■■■mnH Carl Julien »17&
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    Van Anda No. 5—COLONEL OTHNIEL BEALE'S HOUSE 101 East Bay Street c. 1740 Tha early history of this house is in keeping with its present charm. This is how it came to be built. When the fire of 1740 destroyed the neighboring part of town, Colonel Othniel Beale, "a gentleman of great ingeniousity and judgement", was busy putting- Charleston's fortifications "in a condition to beat off any Enemy." Very shortly after he bought these lots on the Bay he built this house, and the one next south to it, under one roof. They were obviously designed for merchants on the then busy Bay, who would work below and live above stairs. Beale, who had not been born in New England for nothing, to encourage a better sort of tenant, made the rooms upstairs fine with woodwork that stood up to any of its time in the city for design and execution. 18
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    Since this is one of the oldest of Charleston's houses, standing in one of the town's oldest neighborhoods, on land granted by the Lords Proprietors of Carolina, it is very fitting that the Legges should have placed large copies of the great seal of the founders of the colony to guard the entrance door to their home. This, and the charm of the situation, induced the Legges to pioneer in rehabilitating the house when the neighborhood all about it had degenerated into the depths of slum- dom. Greatly daring, they reorganized their house in 1931 and went to live in it. Others followed their example until, house by house, one of Charleston's most delightful and colorful neighborhoods was saved. The Legges' restoration set a fine example. Two decayed stores gave room for garages; a brick-heaped yard became a garden; paint by the dozen coats was removed from the capital woodwork. Their family furniture with old mahogany pieces that were made in Charleston or on the plantations of the Low Country, have furnished the restored rooms in the happiest manner. Residence of Mr. and Mrs. Lionel K. Legge Van Anda -» 19 «■
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    Schwartz No. 6—CAPERS-HUGER SMITH HOUSE 69 Church Street c. 1745 When this old house wTas still a shell-torn wreck from the bombardment of the Confederate War, it was purchased by Mrs. William Mason Smith. Her children and grandchildren have lived here ever since and most evidently loved and cherished it. And it is worthy of such affection and care. It was built probably before 1745 by Richard Capers, a South Carolinian of a Huguenot family. As it was, and is still, one of Charleston's earliest and handsomest examples of a large double house, it attracted well-to-do owners. Among these were Colonel Jacob M'otte, Public Treasurer of the Province; Colonel James Parsons; and a colorful gentleman-planter, O'Brien Smith, who, among other things, was an early president of the Hibernian Society. Smith, at -20-
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    the beginning of the nineteenth century, probably gave the Georgian house handsome Adam mantels and threw together the two front rooms on the second floor to make the large parlor. Miss Alice Ravenel Huger Smith, the water-colorist, and long the most noted of Charleston's native artists, is now one of the owners in residence here. There are many of her paintings in its rooms. The Smiths' old and beautiful furniture fills these rooms amply and delightfully with a fine history of the family's good taste during many generations. Among their recent acquisitions is a chandelier of Murano glass over the piano in the drawing room which joins very charmingly with the furnitue of two centuries that is below it. As at many Charleston homes, in the yard is a kitchen building, now used as a studio, whose arched windows follow the "Gothic"' fashion illustrated by Horace Walpole in his renowned house at "Strawberry Hill," on the Thames. Residence of Miss Caroline R. Huger Smith and Miss Alice R. Huger Smith ■*21 «■
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    Carl Julien No. 7—WILLIAM HENDRICKS' BUILDINGS 83 Church Street c. 1749 This unexpectedly unusual little house has been selected especially as a very happy example of what has been done in remodellings in Charleston. Before being turned into a residence by its present owner, its front rooms were parts of an old kitchen building- shared by two establishments on the street. These were all started together, as an investment, by a Christ Church planter named William Hendricks. Dying in 1749, he instructs his executors in his will to complete the two brick "tenements" he is building on Church Street and, "also the Back Buildings" thereto. So we can count their age very accurately. In the next couple of centuries the rooms on either side of the nice little narrow arched passage, that frames a view of the garden, were used as shops by a variety of tradesmen and artisans. It is appopriate that you can now buy in them fine decorations and antiques, and they still serve their original purpose. They do this all the more charmingly because, in all modern alterations, great care has been taken to preserve the quaint appearance of the group from the street. ■*22«-
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    Mrs. Brown has filled the winter home she improvised from the two eighteenth century kitchens with an interesting collection of heirlooms. As she was born a Perry from Rhode Island, many of her things come from her notable, sea-faring New England ancestors. So, among old Chinese porcelains and Korean chests, you may find a shield- back Hepplewhite chair used by the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia in 1781; and over the cavernous arch of the erstwhile kitchen fireplace, now set out with a proper compliment of iron cranes, brass kettles and copper stew pans, you will see, well-carved and gilded, a spreading Federal Eagle that came from Nantucket and doubtless before that ornamented the stern of some tall old ship. Not the least charming part of what has happened to William Hendricks' "investment" is the delightful little paved garden seen through the arch from Church Street. Residence of Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds D. Brown Ws m Carl Julien 23
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    Ben Heyward No. 8—BRANFORD-HORRY HOUSE 59 Meeting Street c. 1751 Shortly after they were married in 1751, William Branford, a well-to-do planter, and his wife, who had been Elizabeth Savage, built this fine double Georgian house on a lot she had inherited. They built so strongly that their house has stood for almost two hundred years, and so tastefully that, in an architectural survey made in Charleston in 1944, it was classified as a building of national importance. The portico, which now extends across the sidewalk of Meeting Street, was not added until the 1830's, but this home has been fortunate in that its alterations have only served to enhance its beauty. Elias Horry, a great-grandson of the builders, to whom the house came in 1820, was president of the South Carolina Rail Road when that very progressive little company could boast the longest line anywhere in the world. It was he who added the portico. The house passed through several hands and was bought in 1910 by Mrs. William Aiken Martin, the home of whose family it has been ever since. Mrs. Martin 'is granddaughter, Mrs. Percy Gamble Kammerer, its present owner, has made many careful improvements. During the past year a partition, cutting across the upstairs drawing- rooms, has been removed and the excellent woodwork of William Branford's building freed of paint and allowed, for the first time since it was installed, to show its natural -£24^
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    beauty. The builder used in his carving the type of wood most easily worked; cypress for panels, tulip and mahogany for carvings. After being rubbed down these have formed a pattern of great interest. The house is interestingly furnished with many local pieces, and some fine English furniture. The owner's particular interest being in china, a very varied and fine collection is found displayed throughout the house. Residence of Mrs. Percy Gamble Kammerer 25
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    No. 9— CHARLES ELLIOTT'S HOUSE 43 Legare Street c. 1759 Charles Elliott, son of one of the wealthiest families in the colony, came of age in 1758, married in 1759, and seems to have built himself this big, handsomely appointed house at the same time. In it grew up his daughter Jane, who, during the Revolution, was courted by young William Washington, a gallant leader of cavalry from Virginia and a cousin of our great American general. When they were married, William Washington settled in South Carolina and started a branch of the family in the Low Country. They made their home for half a century in the handsome house still standing at No. 8 South Battery. The Elliotts' Legare Street house passed from them to a string of good Low Country families; Beresfords and Brailfords, Deas and Pringles and Hugers followed each other there. 26
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    The great fire of 1861, burning a broad swath through the city, spared this house while destroying many around it. After the Confederate War, the quaintly narrow street it had long stood upon was widened, conservatively enough, to its present proportions. But it still carried the happy name of Friend Street, gotten when, by friendly agreement, it was run through the lands of several citizens for the good of the general community. Gossip said that later, because of someone's social ambition, the name of Legare was brought around a corner and applied here. When the Elliott house was bought by the late Mr. Henry Rutledge Buist in 1911, a number of changes were made to it, notably upon its street front. It has been ever since the home of his family, and is now the residence of Mrs. Buist, who has furnished it with a number of interesting things inherited and collected. Particularly outstanding are the many Chippendale mirrors, and among the numerous fine paintings is one of the beautiful Mrs. Middleton Smith, painted by her very celebrated brother, Thomas Sully. Residence of Mrs. Henry Rutledge Buist Carl Julien •£ 27 «■
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    Van Anda No. 10—THOMAS LEGARE'S HOUSE 90 Church Street c. 1760 Standing together on Church Street is a group of three very fine old Charleston "single" houses that beautifully illustrate both the conservatism and the charm of the city's taste in building. The most northerly of these seems to date from near 1740. The middle house is known to have been built about 1809. The other, judging by its most excellent woodwork, belongs to Pre-Revolutionary time and has been dated tentatively from 1760. Though spanning a half century of building in Charleston, at first glance these three would seem contemporaries. Since the land where this last house stands was owned by Thomas Legare before 1752, it can easily be attributed tc that son of one of the outstanding Huguenot emigrants to this colony. It is very fitting that it should lately have been charmingly and carefully restored by two Charlestonians of Huguenot name and lineage, William Lucas Simons and his. late wife, Adele Petigru (Conner) Simons. Between the ownerships of old Thomas Legare and that of Simons, this house stands for a great deal that has been most gracious and praiseworthy in Charleston's history. Only two notable changes have been made between these far-removed owners. A look at the middle window at the front of the ground floor indicates an overwide flat arch still marking where Legare had the entrance to an office. And the detail of the -£2S^-
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    handsome Regency piazza shows you that they were added by George MacAuley, who in 1816 bought and pulled down the next-door house to make a yard for his. The brick wall he made that bounds it in has the very characteristic arched construction of the best Charleston building. The house is now filled with fine old furniture and some most interesting portraits. Hanging in the drawing room are two that are peculiarly worth noticing. Above the hanger, (the small curved sword) he wore with his fatigue uniforms, is a painting of Keating Lewis Simons, lawyer in Charleston, rice planter on Cooper River, and once Brigade-Major to General Francis Marion, the famous South Carolina partisan. Near it is Sully's portrait of Adele Petigru Allston, sister to that most notable of South Carolina Unionists, James Louis Petigru, and wife to R. F. W. Allston, a great rice planter, and a liberal governor of ante-bellum times. Residence of Mr. W. Lucas Simons «-29-*
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    No. 11—COLONEL ISAAC MOTTE'S HOUSE 30 Meeting Street c. 1769 We are told by tradition that Isaac Motte, who would later be a fighting Colonel in the Revolution, bought this house unfinished in 1769. Since then, until it was purchased in 1947 by Mrs. Victor Morawetz, it was almost continuously a home for Motte descendants. Tradition also states that, during the Revolution, the Hessians had their headquarters here, handy to that of the British navy down the .street and their army's over at Miles Brewton's house on King Street. The story goes on to say that, when the war was finished, a good many Hessians who wanted to stay on in a land they found full of new Promise, hid themselves in the flues of this house and wherever else was convenient, until the transports they were due to sail on were safely down the harbor.
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    Mrs. Morawetz has restored the house and added such, things to it as were needed to make it a comfortable winter residence. In the work, the fine cypress that lines so many of the rooms has been carefully cleared of paint. Those who know timber must look at it in a mixture of envy and admiration, for hardly anywhere can such wood now be found. Much of the furniture used here came from Fenwick Hall, on Johns Island. There Mrs. Morawetz and her husband found one of the finest of the Low Country plantation houses neglected almost to the final point of destruction. They restored it as a labor of love, and made it again into a seat of great hospitality. Mrs. Morawetz has here done everything that could be contrived to keep another fine and historic house useful and beautiful for years to come. The house itself is now complete. The garden is in an interesting stage of development. The live oak to the rear of the lot is being made a focal point for plantings of azaleas and camellias. A wall of old Charleston brick is to be built across the front of the property replacing the plain board fence. The photograph shows the entrance from the street onto the side piazza, down which one must walk before reaching the front door, so charming and typical of Charleston. Residence of Mrs. Victor Morawetz •£31 «•
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    Van Anda No. 12—YOUNG-JOHNSON HOUSE 35 Church Street c. 1780 Facing on Church Street, below George Eveleigh's older residence and in line with the house of Colonel Motte, is the house of Thomas Young. Young, an extensive builder, is supposed to have begun and sold Motte's house before starting on this smaller and somewhat more modest example of the same style and type of residence. The house got a firm place in Charleston's heart and history when, during the nineteenth cenUry, it was the home of Dr. Joseph Johnson and his family. The doctor was so versatile that his profession played but a small part in a considerable career. A man of affairs and ability, he was an intendant of Charleston, president of the city's branch of the second Bank of the United States, and prominently a leader in the Union party that fought nullification. He is now best remembered as an historian for his very entertaining •»32«-
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    and enlightening "Traditions of the American Revolution", written in his old age in this old house that had been a new one when the events he remembered were occurring. Today it is a bachelor home for the noted sculptor and collector, Wilmer Hoffman. Since buying it he has made many careful and tasteful restorations. But above all he has filled it with things of rare beauty, heirlooms mixed with his own discriminating collectings, and his own noticeably charming sculpture. Had not its owner so definitely marked this house as his home, it would pass at first glance for a small informal museum of a high order. Noticeable among many beautiful things are the paintings, one by Goya, another by Sir Thomas Lawrence, and two by Thomas Sully. That celebrated painter grew up in Charleston, did much of his best work here and has left many kindred in the community, so both of his portraits are of peculiar interest. Certain particular features add to this for one of them. The subject is a little boy, an uncle of the present owner, but Sully chose to paint him wearing the same charmingly delapidated. straw hat in which he had posed his son for the famous portrait now in Boston. This child in Charleston has also the same delicate, rosy little face, flooded with sunlight, done in the artist's best manner, that makes the Boston picture another of Sully's masterpieces. Residence of Mr. Wilmer Hoffman 4r33&
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    Carl Julien No. 13—WILLIAM GIBBES' HOUSE 64 South Battery c. 1772 Residence of Mr. and Mrs. John Ashby Farrow This splendid mansion, built at the height of Charleston's Georgian period, was extensively redecorated again in the midst of her craze for Adam's style. The result is both extraordinarily distinguished and pleasing. The present owner's very fine furniture combines to make it one of the handsomest houses in the city. The house was started soon after 1772 by William Gibbes. The Ashley then came up to the opposite side of the street and Gibbes had also a very long wharf running out to its channel, where he conducted his business. The wharf had a most agreeable function. In hot weather a place of "genteel entertainment" used to be fitted up at its far end where Charlestonians might partake of both the cooling air and some light refreshments. After its owners died, the house became the home of Mrs. Sarah Moore Smith and long continued in her family. About 1800 the Smiths added the monumental marble stairways at the front, put a high cove to the parlor ceiling, and enriched much of the Georgian woodwork with Adam ornaments. -£34*-
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    The Reverend John Grimke Drayton, who later owned the house, took his mother's surname to inherit Magnolia Plantation on the Ashley, and, when a "clergyman's throat" had driven him from the active ministry of the Episcopal Church, made there the world-famous garden. In the nineteen-thirties, Mrs. Washington A. Roebling, widow of the builder of the Brooklyn Bridge, bought the house and made extensive restorations and alterations to it. For her collection of oriental art and ceramics the southeast room on the principal floor was remodelled in the mode of Chinese Chippendale. The rooms at the rear were lengthened and the brick stairway added to connect the house with the fine formal garden. It is now the home of Mrs. Roebling's grandson, Mr. John Ashby Farrow, and Mrs. Farrow. Carl Julien »35«
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    Carl Julien No. 14—MISS AMARINTHEA ELLIOTT'S HOUSE 16 Legare Street c. 1795 Residence of Mr. and Mrs. James M. Hagood Miss Elliott's home is another of the recent restorations shown in our tours. It was completed only last year and is now being opened to the public for the first time. Although the house itself needed little to enhance its great charm, the garden is completely new. It is interesting now to remember the few trees, and sparse background shrubbery, the crowded old bulbs, and redundant wild onions, that twelve months ago occupied the spot the present owners have since made so lovely. Just before the Revolution, Legare Street began to turn from a quiet suburban thoroughfare into one of the most charming residential streets in Charleston. In 1767 Barnard Elliott, who would later become a prominent leader in the War for Independence, bought land on the west side of the street, built a home at its northern limit, and sold the rest in smallish parcels to his three sisters. ^36^
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    His sister, Miss Amarinthea Elliott, "plantress" in her own right as were so many independent-minded South Carolina women, got the southernmost lots together in 1779 to form a decent size property. She waited, however, until after 1790 to build this fine "single17 house on the land thus acquired. Once built, she lived in it to a ripe old age and died in 1822. The house is characteristic of the time and its people. The decoration is simple in detail, but very handsome in effect, halfway between the heavier work of the Georgian period that had been ended by the war and the very much ornamented Adam style that was to come in with the beginning of the nineteenth century. In some respects it is superior to both. Its big comfortable, cross-ventilated rooms, with their flanking piazzas, were Charleston's answer, after a century of building, to the problem of living in a semi-tropical climate. Set well above the ground, tall in proportion to their floor space, the principal rooms on the first and second floors so suited the tastes and needs of succeeding generations that they came with little alteration to their present owners, Mr. and Mrs. James M. Hagood. l! •* 37 -I*
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    Schwartz No..15—JOSEPH WINTHROP'S HOUSE 129 Tradd Street c. 1797 It is now hard to imagine that when Joseph Winthrop built his house its site was part of an open "green", its lot line backing on a salty creek, and the marshes of the Ashley were hardly a stones-throw from its back windows. Charleston, though much smaller than she is today, was a booming post-revolutionary town whose trade induced many clever young New Englanders to try their luck in the offices and. shops along her Bay. Winthrop, from Boston, was one of these who made good. Here he married an elder sister of the miniaturist, Charles Fraser, and soon built this house on land of hers to be a home for what came to be a large family. Counting out a dining room, and lower and upper reception rooms, or parlors, the tall old house had but three rooms left for sleeping quarters ; but the names engaved 38
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    with a diamond on one of the old windowpanes show that eleven children and their parents once lived here pleasantly together. The principal rooms in the front of the house stand much as when they were built. They are decorated with woodwork designed in a very simple but most charming transitional style, keeping something from the late Georgian work of Pre-Revolutionary days, borrowing lightness from the Adam decoration that would overrun the town in a few years. An interesting detail of the dining room is a mantel gotten from the destroyed home of Henry Laurens, President of the Continental Congress, and one of the most able leaders of South Carolina in the Revolution. Behind the house a well designed block of brick service buildings, once a combination of coach-house, stables and kitchens, has been turned into pleasant apartments. The furnishings here are both cosmopolitan and biographical. After a lifetime of service in the navy, the Pophams have brought home many things notable from China and Japan. The rest tell a family history with the heirlooms the Admiral has brought from New York and New Jersey and those that came to Mrs. Popham from Charleston and many outlying family plantations. Residence of Admiral and Mrs. William S. Popham Carl Julien ■* 39 «~
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    Carl Julien No. 16—TIMOTHY FORD'S HOUSE 54 Meeting Street c. 1800 This house, with its gracious and lovely Adam decoration, marks the new departure into that style that came to Charleston at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Timothy Ford, its builder, who as a boy had fought and been wounded in the Revolutionary War, came here from his New Jersey home to practice law^ after graduating from Princeton. He succeeded both professionally and socially, rising to the top of the bar and marrying, in turn, into two prominent Charleston families. He built this house for his second wife on a street then coming into its own as a place of fine residences. His family lived here for over a century. Among them was Edmund Ravenel, M. D., a conchologist of note. Most unselfishly a scientist, he is said to have sacrificed a rice crop growing on his Cooper River plantation by drawing off the reserve water that should have irrigated it in order to complete the famous Aggassiz's collection of local fish. The house, which has ever lent itself to hospitality, has one very interesting record. During the Revolution Ford's mother entertained Washington at their Morristown home Nearly fifty years afterwards Ford entertained Lafayette in his home in Charleston. •£40<
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    For a number of years Dr. and Mrs. Hooker have made it a winter residence. Like its builder they are northerners who are contributing- much to a southern city. They have filled their home with as handsome furniture as can be seen in this country. As it will be shown by candlelight, the beauty of their old silver and mahogany, their lovely antiques, china, and glass, will be given a most appropriate and complimentary setting. Of particular interest are a step-top cherry highboy, thought to be the only one of its kind in America, and a small four poster field bed that has been used by the family for six venerations. Residence of Dr. and Mrs. Ransom S. Hooker -*MK*
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    No. 17—BRAYTON-MANIGAULT HOUSE 6 Gibbes Street c. 1806 Anyone who has known Charleston through a summer need not be told how happily this house was designed and contrived for the wealthy families who long made it a home. When Isaac Parker built the oldest part of it and for a century afterward, the waterside of the Ashley lay along its garden. His large rooms with high ceilings made a good beginning for Colonel William Drayton, who, after 1820, used a prize won in the East Bay Lottery to lengthen both wings, and add a great deal of fine decoration to the Adam interiors in the not dissimilar style of the Regency. Drayton was an eminently respectable citizen, and be it remembered, lotteries were also sufficiently respectable then to be used in the building of churches. Drayton, being also a Unionist, left the state after the Nullification controversy, and settled in Philadelphia to the great profit of his descendants. He then sold the house to Charles Manigault. Manigault, the traveller-son of the eminent amateur architect, Gabriel Mjanigault, filled his big rooms with a great collection of art and curiosities from many parts of the w^orld. These included all manner of things, from a painting by Vigee-Lebrun to the four inch fingernails of a Chinese gentleman. And with them were mingled the portraits and heirlooms of one of South Carolina's most cultivated families. Four genera- •* 42 «•
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    tions of the Manigaults continued here counting such distinguished citizens amongst them as Dr. Gabriel Edward Manigault, a founder of the Carolina Art Association, head of, and the preserver for many years of the Charleston Museum. Mr. and Mrs. Boggs have given their home a charming mixture of traditions and heirlooms, Northern and Southern. You find on one wall a painting of one of the clipper ships sailed by Mr. Boggs' great-grandfather, from Cambridge, Massachusetts. And above the mantel in the dining room you see a portrait of Mrs. Boggs' great-grandfather, George A. Trenholm. For many years before the Confederate War, Trenholm was connected with the old, and most opulent firm of John Fraser & Company. During that war, as its head, he created and operated their large line of blockade-runners. These carried millions of dollars worth of cotton out through the Federal ships, and brought necessities into the Confederacy whose true value could not be stated in money. At the end of the war, at a great personal sacrifice, Trenholm served as Secretary of the Treasury of the Confederate States of America. Residence of Mr. and Mrs. Francis G. Boggs Van Anda ■* 43 *■
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    Carl Julien No. 18—CAPTAIN JOHN MORRISON'S HOUSE 125 Tradd Street c. 1807 This house though dating from the high Adam period of Charleston's architecture escaped many of its earmarks and most of the detail that is sometimes so lavish. Its simple but well-proportioned, large comfortable rooms serve therefore all the more admirably as settings for some of the most beautiful furnishings in this city. These have been brought here by its present owner and his family, who besides have made in the ample grounds about the house one of the city's most charming informal gardens. They have thus repeated a little ancient Charleston history, for their camellias and flowering quinces, their roses and wistaria, now bloom where Robert Squibbs, author of a once popular "Gardeners Calendar", cultivated exotics for the pleasure of the generation of Charlestonians who flourished at the end of the eighteenth century. In the last decade the house was purchased and made a winter home by Mr. and Mrs. Frederic H. Allen. It now serves their son for a like purpose. The Allens placed old 44
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    doorways, brought from the north, at the street and piazza entrances and had reproductions of old Charleston mantels made for the principal rooms. Little seems to be known of John Morrison, who built this house, except that he was a sailor, a ship's captain, and later a merchant. It is interesting to think that the wide rooms he first owned and dwelt in are filled today with so many things from abroad. Among the fine foreign furniture and decorations are the sorts of things he may also have brought home, notably a superb collection of Chinese Lowestoft that includes many unusual pieces. Residence of Mrs. Frederic Stevens Allen Julicn 45
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    No. 19—WILLIAM MASON SMITH'S HOUSE 26 Meeting Street c. 1822 About 1820 Charleston was sufficiently recovered from the War of 1812 to start building in a grand manner with a new style. While England had been fighting France, she had done a little borrowing from the enemy's culture. One acquisition was a robustly ornamental style of architecture called Regency, carried over with some variation from that of the French Empire, and called so in honor of the Regency of the Prince of Wales during the insanity of George III. The style had just come in full strength to Charleston when, in 1822, William Mason Smith, planter son of South Carolina's first bishop, set about making himself a home on Meeting Street. This house of his is now attributed to William Jay, an Englishman, born and trained in the elegant city of Bath, who before he came to practice architecture •*46«-
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    in Charleston in 1819, had designed a number of stately houses in the high taste of the Regency for the rich men of Savannah. Older, more conservative and experienced, Charleston bound such designers to planning won from long experience with its climate; so, though the detail of the fine facade, the lovely vaulted entrance hall and .spiralling stairs, the spacious rooms are all Regency, their owner saw to it that the big rooms were banked along the south side and the double parlors placed on the second floor. By this time piazzas had become so desired that many an old house had them added to walls obviously never expected to receive them. However delightful functionally, piazzas were awkward things to handle in formal designing. To meet the problem, those here are masked toward the street with a masonry wall matching that of the narrow northern wing, complete with sashed windows. Since the arrangement added measurably to the privacy of these much lived upon features of a Charleston house, they must not be considered so entirely "theatrical"^ as a side view makes them appear. After having been the home of its builder's family for over a century, the house passed into other hands, and is now the residence of Mrs. John R. Bennett. Residence of Mrs. John R. Bennett mmm Carl Julien •»47«
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    No organization is capable of greater accomplishment than the sum of the efforts of the individuals working for it, and in this respect Historic Charleston Foundation should be most grateful to the Tours Committee. Each member of this Committee has worked hard to obtain houses for the Tour's, and good will for Historic Charleston Foundation. Most particularly, Mr. Samuel Gaillard Stoney has contributed a magnificent piece of work in collecting and preparing- the histories of the houses, and in the editing of this booklet. Great credit is also due our Tours Director, Mrs. S. Henry Edmunds, whose imagination, enthusiasm and diligence have made this season's tours an actuality. For the past two years it has been my privilege to act as chairman of this fine committee, and I take this opportunity to thank each member of the Committee and Mrs. Edmunds for the splendid work they have done. HENRY P. STAATS Chairman, Tours Committee TOURS COMMITTEE: Miss Alice R. Huger Smith Mrs. Lionel K. Legge Mr. Samuel G. Stoney Mr. E. Milby Burton Mr. C. Lester Cannon 48
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    ADVERTISING DIRECTORY ANTIQUE SHOPS INNS Geo. C. Birlant & Co. Brewton Inn Carib The Carolina Inn, Summerville Rainbow Row Gift & Antique Shop Halcyon Inn, Summerville Marguerite Sinkler Valk Squirrel Inn, Summerville The Hitching Post, Summerville iNTERIOR DECORATORS ART SHOPS Marguerite Sinkler Valk Emmett Johnson Lanneau's Art Shop PHOTOGRAPHIC SUPPLIES The Pink House The Camera Shop BEAUTY SHOPS Lanneau's Art Store Fort Sumter Beauty Salon Lureen's Beauty Salon POWER COMPANY South Carolina Power Co. BOOKS Legerton & Co., Inc. PRINTERS Carib Walker, Evans & Cogswell Co. CAB COMPANIES PRINT SHOPS Carolina Cab Company Emmett Johnson CANDY REAL ESTATE Onslow Candy Co. D. Trowbridge Elliman DRESS SHOPS C. T. Lowndes & Co. William M. Means Fort Sumter Dress Shop The Frock Shop L. A. Walker Agency, Summerville Hat and Gown RESTAURANTS GARDENS Brewton Inn Tea Room Cypress Gardens Francis Marion Coffee Shop Henry's, Inc. LaBrasca Spaghetti House Oyster Bay Magnolia Gardens Middleton Gardens Mulberry Castle Pierates Cruze St. Michael's Inn The Carolina Inn, Summerville GIFT SHOPS Halcyon Inn, Summerville Squirrel Inn, Summerville Carolina Handcrafts The Golden Acorn SIGHTSEEING Legerton & Co. Inc. Rainbow Row Gift & Antique Shop Carolina Cab Co. The Hitching Post, Summerville Gray Line Tours, Inc. HANDCRAFT SHOPS TRAVEL BUREAUS Carolina Handcrafts Shop Daniel Ravenel & Co. HOTELS Bob Fox Travel Agency Fort Sumter Hotel U-DRIVE-IT Francis Marion Hotel St. John Hotel City-Rent-a-Car Service ■* 49 <*
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    Coll us for ALL TRAVEL SERVICE LOCAL GUIDES — with or without cars GARDENS OR OTHER SIGHTSEEING RESERVATIONS — TICKETS ANYWHERE RAIL, AIR, CAR — HOTELS — RESORTS RAVENEL TRAVEL SERVICE 54 1/2 BROAD STREET CHARLESTON, S. C. TEL. 7355 Toiletries Infantsware Candies Lingerie
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    HAT AND GOWN 89 CHURCH STREET SPORT — AFTERNOON WEAR EVENING GOWNS COATS — SHIRTS — SWEATERS BLOUSES — HATS ANTIQUES and OBJECTS OF ART Largest antique shop in the Southeast Geo. C. Birlant & Co. 191 King Street, Charleston, S. C. FAMOUS FOR SILVER TEA & COFFEE SETS *S2«-
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    Pre-Revolutionary MULBERRY PLANTATION — 1714 — Mulberry is one of the few plantation houses in the Low Country open for public inspection. HOUSE AND GARDEN OPEN NOVEMBER TO MAY ON US 52 — 26 MILES NORTH OF CHARLESTON ADMISSION $2.00 marguerite sinkler valk 83-85 church .street Charleston, S.C. It will be my pleasure to have you see my selected collection of Lowestoft, other porcelains and Period Furniture. 206 King St. CHARLESTON 5.S.C. CAMERA SHOP CAMERAS PHOTOGRAPHS ACCESSORIES 108 CHURCH STREET — PHONE 3-1470 CHARLESTON 35, SOUTH CAROLINA
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    CHARLESTON SOUTH CAROUMA 50 - 52 - 54 MARKET STREET Open 12 Noon to Midnight Seven Days FORT SUMTER BEAUTY SHOP Fort Sumter Hotel on the battery Exclusive with us Ogilvie Sisters Gerrnaine Monteil hair scalp treatments Cosmetics & toiletries Fort Sumter Dress Shop ON THE BATTERY -*- PHONE 3-4803 OFFERS the LATEST in FASHIONS * OFF MAIN LOBBY FORT SUMTER HOTEL COSTUME JEWELRY — GIFTS — LINGERIE Book; CARIB Antiques 75 East Bay at the foot of Tradd Street. Within easy walking distance of the Fort Sumter & Villa All Antique stock bought locally Open until 10 P. M. •* 54 *
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    Open Thanksgiving Day to May "CHARLESTON'S FAMOUS GARDENS MAGNOLIA MIDDLETON • CYPRESS Internationally known for gorgeous camellias, colorful azaleas and spectacular beauty during the winter and spring, the gardens are a fascinating and integral part of Historic Charleston. The gardens may be visited individually by separate admission tickets or you may purchase a combination ticket for the day or season at a substantial saving. Combination tickets are on sale at entrance to each garden. GARDENS OPEN DAILY 8:00 A. M. — 6:00 P. M. •* 55 «-
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    EAT AT the Francis Marion Hotel Specializing in old Charleston dishes. REAL ESTATE INSURANCE WILLIAM M. MEANS 60 broad street Associates Harry Weeks Mat T. ROSSITER Elizabeth L. Hanahan E. L. Jager W. S. Popham THE PINK HOUSE 17 CHALMERS STREET EARLY 18th CENTURY TAVERN ORIGINAL PAINTINGS AND PRINTS HANDGLAZED GLASSWARE PHONE 3-4550 HANDMADE CAROLINA POTTERY HANDMADE MAHOGANY BOWLS AND TRAYS Brewton Inn and Annex GUEST HOUSE 35 TRADD ST. — TEA ROOM 75 CHURCH ST. Telephone 2-3487 — Charleston, S. C. LUNCHEONS — TEAS �� DINNERS A Southern inn of quiet charm and old time hospitality KATHRYN D. McNULTA MARIE B. CHISOLM MULLALLY, RIVERS & LOWNDES C. T. LOWNDES & COMPANY (Est. 1850) Town and Country Real Estate — Plantations CHARLES L. MULLALLY — HASELL B. RIVERS — HENRY II. LOWNDES * 56 *
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    Unusual Gifts Antiques Mrs. Vee Q. Dyer, Prop. 90 E. BAY AT TRADD TEL: 5780 Contact Us For LOCAL SIGHTSEEING TOURS, GUIDES, PRIVATE CARS, AND U.DRIVE-IT FORT SUMTER HOTEL Ruth W. McInnes Dial 2-4696 Robert H. Fox "COMBINED 18 YEARS OF PASSENGER TRAVEL EXPERIENCE" D. TROWBRIDGE ELLIMAN PLANTATIONS TOWN AND COUNTRY HEAL ESTATE DIAL 3-4I8I ..—— SALES, RENTALS AND APPRAISALS Post Office Box 305 36 Broad Street Charleston, S C. For less than 1/5 of a cent additional per letterhead you too can gain the dignity and prestige of Genuine Engraved Social or Business Stationery. Successfully Strvuyt At South Ovtr IS5 Ytars OFFICE FURNITURE SUPPLIES & EQUIPMENT 3 BROAD STREET CHARLESTON, S. C. 4 57 -'*■
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    ONE OF CHARLESTON'S FINER SHOPS All New Modern Equipment — Personalized Service Air Conditioned FOR APPOINTMENT DIAL 2-0702 72 KING STREET LaBRASCA'S SPAGHETTI HOUSE and Chicken Shanty 975 KING STREET TELEPHONE 3-5667 Specializing in SPAGHETTI WITH MEAT BALLS, WESTERN STEAKS, CHOP SUEY CAROLINA HANDCRAFTS SHOP 66 CHURCH STREET HANDWOVEN AND HANDWROUGHT IN THE CAROLINAS LINENS, THROWS, BABY BLANKETS, HOOKED RUGS. POTTERY, WROUGHT IRON — PLANTATION HAMMOCKS OYSTER BAY 397 KING STREET Four doors above the Francis Marion Hotel Finest eating place in Charleston, S. C. Specializing in SEA FOODS, WESTERN STEAKS AND CHOPS LANNEAU'S ART STORE, INC. CHARLESTON, S. C. Picture Framing - - Kodak Finishing Artist and Photographic Supplies — Cards For All Occasions 238 KING STREET PHONE 5425 •» 58 -
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    FORT SUMTER HOTEL CHARLESTON, S. C. CHARLESTON'S ONLY W ATERFRONT HOTEL Open all year, this beautiful resort hotel offers every comfort and service—and delicious meals. ON THE FAMOUS BATTERY Jxo. S. Cator President and Manager Foot of King Street CHARLESTON, S. C. SIGHTSEEING TOURS SEDANS FOR HIRE TAXI CABS CAROLINA CAB CO. DIAL 5757
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    SEE CHARLESTON COMPLETELY By: Bus Limousine By: Yacht Airplane GRAY LINE TOURS Francis Marion Hotel Phone 2-4444 ST. MICHAEL'S INN 101 CHURCH STREET SOUTHERN FRIED CHICKEN & PECAN PIE A SPECIALTY Every Meal a Pleasant Memory MRS. HAMMOND BAMBERG Charleston, South Carolina DINNER 6-7:30 FOR RESERVATIONS PHONE 5437 LEGERTON & COMPANY, INC. Established 1888 Displaying a large selection of Books on Charleston and South Carolina 263 KING STREET Exclusive Gifts at Popular Prices Charleston Books and Prints THE GOLDEN ACORN MORELAND — JUST ACROSS THE ASHLEY ST. ANDREW'S PARISH * 60 *
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    MADE IN CHARLESTON SINCE 1882 "Typical of the Old South" HOME-MADE CANDIES 312 KING ST. 89 BROAD ST. COME IN AND SELECT THE CANDIES YOU WANT AT EITHER STORE—LET US WRAP AND MAIL YOUR GIFT BOXES Onslow's Original Benne Sticks and Benne Cookies Are Nationally Known. mmmmm A Friendly Hotel in the Historic Heart of the City ST. JO! HOTEL MODERATE RATES FREE PARKING MRS. J. W. IVEY VICE PRESIDENT M. OTIS SPYERS MANAGER CHARLESTON, S. C. *61*
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    Summerville, S. C. 25 MILES FROM CHARLESTON ON HIGHWAYS 64, 61 AND 78 The Carolina Inn AN INN of UNUSUAL CHARM AND DISTINCTION Thirty-sixth Consecutive Year Under MOORE OWNER-SHIP MANAGEMENT HALCYON INN SUMMERVILLE, S. C, ON ROUTE 64 Open November 1 to May 1 Recommended by Duncan Hines FRANCES R. WEED CAROLINE W. PARMENTER THE HITCHING POST Middleton-Magnolia Garden Road GIFTS —ANTIQUES MRS. DUDLEY RIGGS Dial 5676 SQUIRREL INN SUMMERVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA BREAKFAST — LUNCHEON — DINNER EVERY ROOM WITH PRIVATE BATH L. A. WALKER AGENCY Real Estate and Insurance SUMMERVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA 62
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    PIRATES CRUZE Mount Pleasant, South Carolina GARDENS BY THE SEA Famous Gold Medal Camellias Over 300 varieties See the Spires of Charleston against the sunset— across the wine dark sea Also Historic Fort Sumter and the Harbor FROM THE AMALFI PERGOLA "Where waves of grass break into a foam of flowers—and where the wind's feet shine across the sea." OPEN ALL YEAR — DEC-MAY $2.00 — MAY-DEC. $1.00 7 Miles from Charleston — 1 Mile from Highway No. 17 ■» 63 *■
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    Published By HISTORIC CHARLESTON FOUNDATION COPYRIGHT 1949 Printed By WALKER, EVANS & COGSWELL CO. Charleston. S. C.
Title:
Charleston's Historic Houses, 1949: Second Annual Tours Sponsored by Historic Charleston Foundation
Date:
1949
Description:
Descriptions and photographs of the historic houses on tour in 1949. Published by Historic Charleston Foundation, 1949; printed by Walker, Evans & Cogswell. Sixty-three pages. (Note: All a/k/a references pertain to the name of the house as listed in Jonathan Poston's book The Buildings of Charleston: A Guide to the City's Architecture; USC Press, 1997.)
Collection:
Historic Charleston Foundation's Tours of Homes
Contributing Institution:
Margaretta Childs Archives at Historic Charleston Foundation
Media Type:
Pamphlets
Personal or Corporate Subject:
Historic Charleston Foundation -- Tours
Topical Subject:
Architecture, Domestic -- South Carolina -- Charleston -- Guidebooks, Historic buildings -- South Carolina -- Charleston, Dwellings -- South Carolina -- Charleston
Geographic Subject:
Charleston (S.C.) -- Buildings, structures, etc., Low Country
Shelving Locator:
HCF.FOHG.001
S.C. County:
Charleston County (S.C.)
Material Type:
image/jpeg
Digitization Specifications:
301 ppi, 24-bit depth color, HP Scanjet 4890. Archival Masters are tiffs.
Copyright Status Statement:
Digital image copyright 2010, Historic Charleston Foundation. All rights reserved. For more information contact Margaretta Childs Archives at HCF, P.O. Box 1120, Charleston, SC 29402.